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xiv
TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL EMOTIONAL
BEHAVIORS AND SCHOOL ACADEMIC PERFOMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL
STUDENTS IN KOROGWE DISTRICT, TANZANIA
ADAMSON RAINAS
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ADMINISTRATION, PLANNING, AND
POLICY STUDIES OF THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
2017
CERTIFICATION
The undersigned certify that he has read this dissertation and hereby
recommends for acceptance by the Open University of Tanzania an
independent study entitled, “Teachers’ Perception of The Relationship
Between Social Emotional Behaviors and School Academic Performance
Among Secondary School Students in Korogwe District, Tanzania” in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree in
Master of Education in Administration, Planning, and Policy Studies of
the Open University of Tanzania.
…………………………..……………
Professor Omari, I. M.
(Supervisor)
………………………….
Date
COPYRIGHT
No part of this dissertation may be reproduced, stored in any
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written
permission of the author or The Open University of Tanzania in that
behalf.
DECLARATION
I, Adamson Rainas, declare that this dissertation is my own original
work and that it has not been submitted, and will not be submitted to
any University for a similar or any other degree award.
…………………………………….
Signature
……………………………
Date
DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to my lovely wife, Ms Glory H. Mlay,
and our dear sons Victor and Brian R. Adamson
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am so grateful to God Almighty who protected and enabled me to deal
with various challenges during the whole process of writing this
dissertation. To Him alone be the glory. On the other hand, I wish to
express my profound gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Issa M.
Omari, for his valuable advice, patience, tireless, intellectual
guidance, constructive academic criticism, wide research experience,
and moral support which shaped me to arriving to this acceptable
scholarly work.
I also want to express my sincere appreciations to staff members in
Korogwe district for their moral, psychological and full support
whenever I demanded. Just to mention a few, these include the Town
Director (TD), Mr Jumanne K. Shauri and Town Primary Education Officer
(TPEO) Ms Mwanaisha Kikwete. Nonetheless, I would like to convey my
cordial regards to Heads of Schools for allowing their teachers to
participate in the data collection stages. Nonetheless, as well as all
teachers from those schools that the data collection took place for
their active participation, patience and support during the
preparation of this dissertation.
Further, I wish to express my dearly appreciations to my lovely wife,
Ms Glory H. Mlay and our dear sons, Victor and Brian for their
encouragement, and support during my study period. My special thanks
should also go to my friend, Mr Josephat Semkiwa for encouraging me to
keep working on this dissertation. Finally, I wish to express my
sincere acknowledgements to every individual who in one way or another
contributed to the success of this dissertation. May the good Lord
bless you all.
ABSTRACT
This study aimed at exploring teachers’ perception of the relationship
between social emotional behaviors and the school academic performance
among secondary school students in Korogwe District, Tanzania. Also,
it examined teachers’ perception of prevalence as well as indicators
and characteristics of social emotional behaviors. The study adopted a
quantitative research paradigm, whereby survey study research design
was applied. Data were adopted using both open and closed ended
questionnaires followed by descriptive analysis of quantitative data
done through tabulation. The studies revealed that majority of
teachers were able to identify the indicators and characteristics of
social emotional behaviors. They also perceived that boys are more
likely to exhibit externalizing behaviors leading to a great
percentage with social emotional behaviors whereas girls exhibit
internalizing behaviors and so becoming fewer in number compared to
boys. Further, the study revealed that, there is a very close
relationship between social emotional behaviors and school academic
performance. The research concludes that social emotional behavior has
a great impact to school academic performance. At this juncture,
deliberate measures (including effective academic instruction such as
phonological awareness, word identification, fluency, vocabulary, and
comprehension) for students with social emotional behaviors should be
given first priority. The research recommends that policy should be
set clear so that preservice and inservice teachers get training on
social emotional behaviors at colleges so as to gain skills on how to
identify and deal with this group of learners.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CERTIFICATION ii
COPYRIGHT iii
DECLARATION iv
DEDICATION v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi
ABSTRACT vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF FIGURES xiii
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xiv
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1
1.1 Background to the Problem 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.3.1 General Objective of the Study 3
1.3.2 Specific Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.4.1 The Research Tasks 4
1.4.2 The Research Hypotheses 5
1.5 Limitations of the Study 5
1.6 Delimitations of the Study 6
1.7 Conceptual Framework for the Relationship Between Social Emotional
Behaviours and School Academic Performance 6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Figure 1.1: Conceptual Framework, adopted from Stufflebeam (2003) 7
1.8 Relevance of Conceptual Framework Model to the School Academic
Performance 9
1.9 The Significance of the Study 9
CHAPTER TWO 12
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 12
2.1 The Concept of Emotions 12
2.1.1 How Children Acquire Emotions 14
2.1.2 The Emotional Behaviors 15
2.2 Meaning of Social Emotional Behaviors 15
2.3 Causes of Social Emotional Behaviors 17
2.3.1 Biological Factors That Cause Social Emotional Behaviors 17
2.3.2 Environmental Factors That Cause Social Emotional Behaviors 18
2.3.3 Home and Family Factors That Cause Social Emotional Behaviors 18
2.3.4 School Related Factors as Causes of Social Emotional Behaviors
20
2.3.5 Peer Related Factors as Causes of Social Emotional Behaviors 21
2.3.6 Teacher Related Factors as Causes of Social Emotional Behaviors
22
2.3.7 Cultural Factors Causing Social Emotional Behaviors 23
2.3.8 Sociological Factors That Cause Social Emotional Behaviors 24
2.4 Indicators and Characteristics of Social Emotional Behaviors 24
2.4.1 Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors 25
2.5 Prevalence of Social Emotional Behavior among Children 26
2.5.1 Social Emotional Behavior as Related to Gender and Age 27
2.5.2 Social Emotional Behaviors and Juvenile Delinquency 29
2.6 Relationship Between Social Emotional Behaviors And School
Academic 30
2.6.1 Current Classroom Instruction for Students with SEB 30
2.6.2 Empirical Evidence 35
2.7 Synthesis and Research Gap 36
2.7.1 Synthesis of the Literature Reviewed 36
2.7.2 Research Gap 37
CHAPTER THREE 39
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 39
3.1 Study Area, Research Paradigm and Research Design 39
3.1.1 Study Area 39
Figure 3.1: Map of Tanzania Showing Study Area 39
3.1.2 Research Paradigm 41
3.1.3 Research Design 41
3.2 Sample and Sample Size 43
Table 3.1: Age, Education Level, and Gender of Respondents 44
3.3 Sampling Procedures 45
3.4 Data Collection Tools and Procedures 46
3.5 Data Analysis Methods 46
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Data 47
3.6.1 Validity of Data 47
3.6.2 Reliability of Data 48
3.7 Ethical Reflections and Precautions 48
3.7.1 Informed Consent 49
3.7.2 Moral Issues 50
3.7.3 Privacy 50
CHAPTER FOUR 51
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 51
4.1 Teachers’ perception of Indicators and Characteristics of SEB 51
Table 4.1: Teachers’ Perception of Indicators and Characteristics of
SEB 52
4.2 Teachers’ Perceived Prevalence of Social Emotional Behaviors 52
Table 4.2: Teachers’ Perception of the Prevalence of Social Emotional
Behaviors 53
4.3 Teachers’ Perceived Relationship between SEB and SAP 54
Table 4: Teachers’ Perceived Relationship Between SEB And School
Academic Performance 54
4.4 Teachers’ Perception of SEB that often Happen in Korogwe District
55
CHAPTER FIVE 57
5.0 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 57
5.1 Discussion by Objectives of the Study 57
5.1.1 Teachers’ Perception of Indicators and Characteristics of Social
Emotional Behaviors 57
5.1.2 Teachers’ Perceived Prevalence of Social Emotional Behaviors 59
5.1.3 Teachers’ Perception of the Relationship Between Social
Emotional Behaviors And School Academic Performance 60
CHAPTER SIX 63
6.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 63
6.1 Summary of the Study 63
6.2 Conclusions of the Study 64
6.3 Recommendations Based on Findings 66
6.3.1 Recommendations for Practice 66
6.3.3 Recommendations for Further Research 66
REFERENCES 68
APPENDICES 72
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Age, Education Level, and Gender of Respondents 44
Table 4.1: Teachers’ Perception of Indicators and Characteristics of
SEB 52
Table 4.2: Teachers’ Perception of the Prevalence of Social Emotional
Behaviors 53
Table 4.3: Teachers’ Perceived Relationship Between SEB And School
Academic Performance 54
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Conceptual Framework 7
Figure 3.1: Map of Tanzania Showing Study Area 39
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
CC City Council
CIPP Context, Inputs, Processes and Product
DC District Council
IQ Intelligence Quotient
LDCE Longman’s Dictionary of Contemporary English
MEdAPPS Master of Education in Administration, Planning, and Policy
Studies
MoEST Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
PLO Palestine Liberation Organization
SAP School Academic Performance
SEB Social Emotional Behavior
TC Town Council
TPEO Town Primary Education Officer
TV Television
UN United Nations
URT United Republic of Tanzania
USAID United States Agency for International Development
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This chapter describes the background to the problem, the statement of
the problem, purpose and objectives of the study, research tasks and
research questions. It also covers some limitations and delimitations
of the study, the conceptual framework, and the significance of the
research work.
1.
Background to the Problem
As children grow and mature they continue to naturally learn how to
modify their actions so they become more effective and accomplishing
their desires. At times, however, they need specific instruction to
guide them toward adjusting their actions to adult standards (Hogdon,
1999). Moreover, Heward (2006), asserts that childhood should be a
happy time; a time for playing, making friends, and learning–and for
most children it is. But some children’s lives are in constant
turmoil. Some children strike out at others, sometimes with disastrous
consequences. Others are so shy and withdrawn that they seem to be in
their own worlds. These are children with social emotional behaviors.
Many children with social emotional behaviors are seldom really liked
by anyonetheir peers, teachers, siblings, even parents. Sadder still,
they often do not even like themselves.
A child who dislikes himself and realizes that he is not even liked by
others has a possibility of developing hostile behaviors whereby
aggression, bullying, and all sorts of violence are expected to be
part of his life. At this juncture, this particular child tends to
stay isolated and lacks selfesteem. When he joins school he will not
be able to socialize and interact with peers. Working in groups,
sharing experiences with peers, and teamwork becomes difficult. At a
situation like this, his school academic performance gets hampered.
This becomes a major problem to teachers who are not aware of social
emotional behaviors. In line to this, Vygotsky (1978) asserts that,
learning is not a natural and individual process, but a social and
cultural activity that an individual is assisted by peers or by other
more knowledgeable individuals.
The present study therefore attempts to find out from the teachers who
were participating in the research and data collection, factors that
contribute to social emotional behaviors and their effect in school
academic performance. On the other hand, the relationship between
social emotional behaviors and school academic performance among
secondary school students in Korogwe Town Council was sought. This is
important for improvement in the teaching and learning process.
Breakwell et al., (2004) assert that, the rationale for studying the
problem is not discovery of new elements, but rather the heightening
of awareness for experience which has been forgotten and overlooked.
By heightening awareness and creating dialogue, it is hoped research
can lead to better understanding of the way things appear to someone
else and through that insight lead to improvements in practice.
2.
Statement of the Problem
Hogdon (1999) asserts that, as children with special needs mature,
they will experience many of the same challenges and milestones that
their peers face. In addition, they will need to surmount some
additional challenges resulting from the learning style differences,
communication needs, and other individual deficiencies that result
from their particular disabilities.
On the other hand, UN Convention (1989) on the Rights of the child
which Tanzania has ratified, outlines the right to education and
training of all children to achieve the greatest degree of self
reliance and social interaction possible. Nevertheless, the Jomtien
World Declaration on education for all (1990), highlights the
commitment to a childcentered pedagogy where individual differences
are accepted as a challenge and not as a problem (URT, 2012). The
overall research problem addressed in this study is that, despite an
increase in the number of secondary school students with social
emotional behaviors in Korogwe, little had been done to analyze the
impact of this problem on education in its totality.
Nonetheless, the indicators and characteristics of social emotional
behaviors among students have hardly been analyzed. If the issues of
causes, prevalence and relationship between social emotional behaviors
and school academic performance are not treated with the seriousness
they deserve, academic opportunities that would have otherwise been
available for students with social emotional behaviors to advance
academically will become foreclosed due to misconception among
secondary school teachers. This in the long run will make it difficult
for students with social emotional behaviors to achieve their desired
goals.
3.
Objectives of the Study
1.
General Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study was to find out teachers’
perception of the relationship between social emotional behaviors and
school academic performance among secondary school students in
Korogwe, district, Tanzania.
2.
Specific Objectives of the Study
. The specific objectives of the study were the following:
i.
To assess teachers’ perception of the indicators and
characteristics of social emotional behaviors among secondary
school students in Korogwe district.
ii.
To explore teachers’ perceived prevalence of social emotional
behaviors among secondary school students in Korogwe district.
iii.
To examine the perceived relationship between social emotional
behaviors and academic performance among secondary school students
in Korogwe district.
3.
Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions:
i.
What are the indicators and characteristics of students with
social emotional behaviors?
ii.
What are the perceived prevalence of social emotional behaviors
among secondary school students?
iii.
What is the relationship between social emotional behaviors and
academic performance among secondary school students?
1.4.1 The Research Tasks
The research tasks for this study were to:
i.
Prove that there exist some unique characteristics among students
with social emotional behaviors in Secondary schools.
ii.
Prove that there are perceived prevalence of social emotional
behaviors among secondary school students.
iii.
Prove that there exists a relationship between social emotional
behaviors and academic performance among secondary school
students.
1.4.2 The Research Hypotheses
Enon (1998) affirms that a hypothesis is the tentative prediction of
the results. It is based on the relationship between variables
(independent and dependent variables) in the study. A research
hypothesis is usually stated before a study begins. The study being a
quantitative one, was guided by the following research hypotheses:
i.
Teachers in Korogwe district have an adequate perception of the
indicators and characteristics of social emotional behaviors.
ii.
There is poor perception of the prevalence of social emotional
behaviors among secondary school teachers.
iii.
There is a close relationship between perceived social emotional
behaviors and school academic performance.
1.5 Limitations of the Study
Limitations are those conditions beyond the control of the researcher
that may place restrictions on the interpretations and conclusions of
the study and their application to other situations (Omari, 2011). The
researcher faced the following challenges in conducting this study:
many of the teachers from secondary schools in the district refused to
be part of the respondents due to being very busy with their day to
day teaching programs. For example, Korogwe Girls’ secondary school
with 51 teachers, only seven were ready to volunteer; Semkiwa
secondary school with 33 teachers only seven volunteered, Ngombezi
secondary school with 26 teachers, only 13 took the questionnaires but
those who were aready to submit were seven. The same was the case with
Joel Bendera secondary school with 15 teachers, only seven were ready
to participate. In this study, therefore, only 28 teachers were ready
to volunteer. Further, Korogwe District has a total of 12 secondary
schools. But due to its geographical nature only four schools (two
schools from urban area and the remaining two from rural areas), out
of 12 were easily reached by the researcher. Data collection was thus,
very cumbersome and time consuming.
6.
Delimitations of the Study
Delimitations are the boundaries of the study (Omari, 2011). Despite
of some secondary school teachers being scattered in urban schools,
this study covered selected sampled schools in the district. In these
areas respondents were gathered in classrooms so that questionnaires
were filled easily. For those busy respondents, the researcher had to
make appointment to meet them when they were free. Majority were not
willing to participate. This forced the researcher to work with a
small sample of only 28 willing participants.
6.
Conceptual Framework for the Relationship Between Social
Emotional Behaviours and School Academic Performance
Omari (2011) asserts that, all research is conceptual. Conceptual
framework is the creations of the researcher. It involves some
imagination and hypothetical thought. Moreover, a conceptual framework
is the process whereby the researcher outlines possible courses of
action or presents a preferred approach to an idea or thought as a
theoretical framework. Figure 1 presents the model used in this study.
Oval 3 Oval 4 Oval 5 Oval 3
AutoShape 9

Figure 1.1: Conceptual Framework, adopted from Stufflebeam (2003)
Following the nature of this study, various conceptual frameworks were
considered. One was Stufflebeam’s CIPP (2003). The conceptual
framework model for understanding the relationship between social
emotion behaviours and the school academic performance in Korogwe,
Tanga. The model incorporates SAP as personal attribute and SAP is a
process as pinpointed out by many scholars in the literature of SAP.
The CIPP evaluation model emphasizes “learningbydoing” to identify
corrections for problematic project features. All four components of
Stufflebeam’s CIPP (Context, Inputs, Processes, and Product)
evaluation model play important and necessary roles in the planning,
implementation, and assessment of academic performance. According to
Stufflebeam (2003), the objective of context evaluation is to assess
the overall environmental readiness of the project, examine whether
existing goals and priorities are attuned to needs, and assess whether
proposed objectives are sufficiently responsive to assessed needs.
The purpose of an input evaluation is to help prescribe a program by
which to make needed changes. The objectives of process evaluation
include documenting the process and providing feedback regarding (a)
the extent to which the planned activities are carried out and (b)
whether adjustments or revisions of the plan are necessary. On the
other hand, product evaluation identifies and assesses
outcomesintended and unintended, short term and long term.
Figure 1.1 presents a conceptual model for the relationship between
social emotional behaviors and school academic performance among
secondary school students in Korogwe, Tanga. Context is concerned with
environmental factors and how they impact students’ academic
performance. As the model illustrates, there are support elements that
are concerned with shaping and improving the academic performance of
students with SEB such as teaching methods, teachers attitudes, self
esteem, self knowledge, motivation and communication. Motivation to
students with SEB is of great importance for a better SAP among the
learners. Furthermore, academic instruction needs to take place within
the entire school working together to create a proactive, consistent,
and positive environment (Bowen et al., 2004).
6.
Relevance of Conceptual Framework Model to the School Academic
Performance
Social emotional behaviours are closely related to the school academic
performance of students from both the process and personal attribute
perspective. There is a very close correlation between students’
social emotional behaviours and their school academic performance.
Kauffman (1977) asserts that, many more children with social emotional
behavioral disorders score in the slow learner or mildly related range
on IQ tests than do children without disabilities. Therefore, the
conceptual framework model was designed for teachers to understand the
relationship between SEB and school academic performance.
As illustrated in the model, social emotional behavior has an impact
to school academic performance among students all over the world. At
this juncture, school environments should be friendly to all students;
moreover, teachers ought to apply various strategies and motivation,
for better performance of students with social emotional behaviors.
Brophy (1988) affirms that motivation has several effects on students’
learning and behavior: Motivation directs behavior toward particular
goals. Motivation will increase students’ time on task and is also an
important factor affecting their learning and achievement. Motivation
enhances cognitive processing.
1.9 The Significance of the Study
It is important that the researcher points out how the solution to the
problem or the answer to the question can influence educational theory
or practice. That is, the researcher must demonstrate why it is worth
the time, effort, and expense required carrying out the proposed
research (Omari, 2011). The results of the study was deemed useful:
Firstly, to school administrators: The administrators may gain from
this study a clearer insight on what kind of behaviors students
achieve better academic performance. This can be done by orienting the
students on the consequences of their behavior (both good and bad) on
their pass marks.
Secondly, to the guidance counselors: The study would also provide
assistance to the schools’ guidance counselors in dealing with the
students, particularly those with social emotional behaviors. Thirdly,
to teachers: If there are people inside the school that can best give
an accurate evaluation of the students’ social emotional behavior and
school academic performance, these are the teachers because they have
direct supervision over them. This study aimed to make teachers aware
of social emotional behavior among students; It guides teachers that
students, both with and without social emotional behaviors must be
given an equal chance to success.
Fourth to students: The results of the study would provide the
students with valuable information that could be used as basis for
improving their academic performance. Fifth, to Parents: It is hoped
that parents and soon to be parents would be able to use the findings
of the study in obtaining a deeper understanding of how children’s
social emotional behaviors affect their school academic performance.
Sixth, to the future researchers: The future researchers can also gain
insights from the results of this study. They could use this as
reference material for a more comprehensive study.
Moreover, school boards, school owners and other stakeholders would
also use the findings of the study to take deliberate remedial
measures to alleviate the situation by improving the learning
environment, facilities, methodology, strategies, and infrastructure
to suit all children including those with social emotional behaviors.
Moreover, the data collected, the analysis made, findings and
recommendations drawn from this research remain a reference for the
researcher and the Open University of Tanzania as well as part of the
requirements for the award of a degree, Master of Education in
Administration, Planning, and Policy Studies (MEDAPPS).
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter includes the concepts of emotion, social emotional
behaviors, indicators and characteristics of social emotional
behaviors, causes of social emotional behaviors, the relationship
between social emotional behaviors and the school academic performance
among secondary school students. Moreover, the review will include
some empirical studies, synthesis of literature reviewed and research
gap.
2.1 The Concept of Emotions
Emotions of fear and anger are often upsetting and sometimes
destructive. However, they also help us cope with the world and meet
its crises, motivating us to actions. And there are other emotions
that greatly enrich our lives, such as love and joy. These feelings,
too, are produced by our brain, working in concert with our body. In
more ordinary situations, emotions affect our behaviors. For example,
even mild excitement or eagerness often helps us learn faster or
accomplish a task more efficiently. At the same time, emotions
involving fear and anxiety can make us forget everything we studied
when we sit down to take an important examination or strike us dumb
when we get up and try to make a speech (Kagan and Segal, 1995).
Coleman (1996), asserts that, a theory was developed showing eight
primary human emotion: joy, acceptance, fear, submission, sadness,
disgust, anger and anticipation and argued that all human emotions can
be derived from these. In psychology, emotion is considered as a
stimulus that involves characteristic physiological changes such as
increase in heart pulse rate, rise in body temperature, greater or
less activity of certain glands, and change in rate of breathing.
Emotion is, in everyday speech, a person's state of mind and
instinctive responses. Emotion is often intertwined with mood,
temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.
On some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion. Those
acting primarily on emotion may seem as if they are not thinking, but
mental processes are still essential, particularly in the
interpretation of events. For example, the realization of danger and
subsequent arousal of the nervous system (e.g. rapid heartbeat and
breathing, sweating, muscle tension) is integral to the experience of
fear. Emotions involve different components, such as subjective
experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psycho
physiological changes, and instrumental behavior (Huston et al.,
1984).
On the other hand, Huston et al., (1984) affirm that, emotions are
complex. The physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the
nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating,
apparently, to particular emotions. Emotion is also linked to
behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more likely to be social
and express their emotions, while introverted people are more likely
to be more socially withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is
often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative.
Huston et al., (1984) assert that emotion is any state of arousal in
response to external events or memories of such events that affect, or
threaten to affect, personal advantage. Emotion is never purely mental
but is always associated with bodily changes such as the secretion of
adrenaline and their effects.
2.1.1 How Children Acquire Emotions
Both cognitive development and social learning theories provide some
understanding of how children move from infant to adult emotions.
Children’s increasing cognitive and linguistic sophistication permits
them to acquire concepts about emotions, to learn the rules of their
culture for emotional expression, and to label and sometimes regulate
body states. By the age of 2, many children have a vocabulary
describing basic emotions and connect emotions to eliciting stimuli in
their conversations. Here are some samples from 28 montholds: I give
a hug; baby be happy; it’s dark; you said mommy; what daddy do.
Between the ages 2 and 5, children learn to recognize and label
situations and facial expressions denoting different feelings. By age
5 children can differentiate among emotions within the broad
categories of positive and negative; they can describe the feelings
displayed in given photographs such as happiness, anger, sadness and
so on. It is also believed that emotions are learned from one’s day to
day environment (Huston et al., 1984).
Observational learning is also a potent means of acquiring cultural
and family norms for situations that elicit emotion modes of
expressing emotions, and labels for emotional experience. Children
observe emotional behavior in their families from infancy on.
Observation can be used to therapeutically help children learn to cope
with stressful situations. For example in a film called Ethan an
operation showing a young boy going through a surgical procedure with
some initial apprehension but no ill effects. Children who see the
film are less frightened of surgery than those who do not see it
(Huston et al., 1984).
2.1.2 The Emotional Behaviors
By definition, everything we do is behavior. Smiling, eating, walking,
and talking are behaviors. Behavior can also be referred to as the
actions or reactions of an object or organism usually in relation to
the environment. Behaviors are the things that a person or animal does
(Hogdon, 1999). These are not always observable, but their effects. On
the other hand, Marshall and Hunt (2002) assert that behavior is
communication. Some behaviors are learned as a way of corresponding to
situations or events or of getting a response; some are developed
because an individual has no other effective means of expression; and
some are developed to enable an individual to control situation.
2.2 Meaning of Social Emotional Behaviors
Heward (2006) asserts that, the term ‘social emotional behavior’ means
a disability that is characterized by behavioral responses in school
programs so different to the appropriate age, cultural, or ethnic
norms that the responses adversely affect educational performance,
including academic, social, vocational or personal skills. The term
includes such a disability that coexists with other disabilities. The
term includes a schizophrenic disorder, affective disorder, anxiety
disorder, or other sustained disorder of conduct.
Haddock and Maio (2010) define social emotional behavior as a variety
of excessive, chronic, deviant behaviors ranging from impulsive and
aggressive to depressive and withdrawal acts which violate the
perceiver’s expectations of appropriateness and which the perceiver
wishes to see stopped. Moreover, Kirk (2006) asserts that, social
emotional behavior can be described as conditions exhibiting one or
more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and
marked a degree that adversely affect educational performance. This
includes, among other things an inability to learn that cannot be
explained by intellectual, sensory, or healthy factors; and inability
to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationship with
peers and teachers. It is also an inappropriate type of behavior or
feelings under normal circumstances or a general pervasive mood of
unhappiness or depression.
Further, Cooper et al., (2002), assert that Social Emotional behavior
may be defined as a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears
associated with personal or school problems and describe children with
behavioral difficulties as children who set up barriers between
themselves and their learning environment through inappropriate,
aggressive, withdrawal behavior and who have developed a range of
strategies for dealing with day to day experiences that are
inappropriate and impede normal personal and social development and
make it difficult for them to learn.
Moreover, Kauffman (1977) defines children with social emotional
behavior as those who chronically and markedly respond to their
environment in socially unacceptable and unsatisfying ways but who can
be taught more socially acceptable and personally satisfying
behaviors. Further, social emotional behaviors are problems prevailing
among young children and youth in our societies which result from a
number of factors ranging from biological, social, or environmental
which may coexist with a learning disability. The definition is
sometimes determined by culture, beliefs and norms of a particular
society. When defining the term social emotional behavior one should
ask himself questions regarding “frequency” (how often does the
behavior occur?); “age appropriate” (does the action correlate to
age?); “how chronic” (does the behavior persist?). Social emotional
behavior can therefore be defined as those behaviors or actions which
are not good enough for the classroom interaction and social
relationship (Heward, 2006).
2.3 Causes of Social Emotional Behaviors
As is true of most disabilities, the specific causes of social
emotional behaviors remain elusive. However, relationships between
some causal factors and this disability are becoming clear. For
example, children who experience physical abuse have a higher
probability of being identified with social emotional behaviors
(Bender, 2004). A link between the factors of poverty and this
disability is apparent as well and is likely that for some children, a
biological explanation will emerge. Nonetheless, Marshall and Hunt
(2002) affirm that, the causes of most social emotional behaviors are
difficult to pinpoint. In spite of numerous theories and hypotheses
about the causes of Social emotional behaviors/disorders, all we can
do with certainty is identify factors that seem to coincide with the
occurrence of behavioral differences. These factors can be grouped
into two major categories: environmental and physiological.
Environmental factors focus on the child’s interactions with people
and things external to him or her whereas, physiological factors focus
on the inner biology or psychology of the child.
2.3.1 Biological Factors That Cause Social Emotional Behaviors
The first factor causing social emotional behavior is the dysfunction
of the central nervous system. Marshall and Hunt (2002) assert that,
physiological factors that may influence the development of the
behavioral disorders include organic factors, such as dysfunction of
the central nervous system, genetic factors, such as family history of
schizophrenia; or specific syndromes, such as Tourette’s syndrome,
which are accompanied by unusual behavior patterns.
Moreover, Heward (2006) asserts that, there is evidence of a genetic
link to some forms of social emotional disorders. The disorder with
the strongest research support for a genetic risk factor is
schizophrenia, a severe and unbearable form of mental illness
characterized by auditory hallucinations (hearing voices), delusions,
and disordered speech. Second factor causing social emotional behavior
is temperament. Melgosa (2008) asserts that, our interpersonal
relations are greatly affected by temperament (a person’s particular
way of reacting to circumstances in life). This kind of reaction is
brought about by the physiological prevalence of an organic system
such as the nervous, circulatory or muscular systems. It is part of
our personality in which biological factors, which influence our
behavior, prevail especially in the personal way we react.
2.3.2 Environmental Factors That Cause Social Emotional Behaviors
Environmental factors that may contribute to social emotional behavior
include family factors, cultural factors, and school factors. Family
factors often revolve around the level of consistency of discipline.
Some other possible contributors to children’s behavior can be the
modeling of aggressive behavior by family members, neglect, or
traumatic events such as death or divorce (Marshall and Hunt, 2002).
2.3.3 Home and Family Factors That Cause Social Emotional Behaviors
The home is a human being’s first school; a school of life and for
life. There we learn to understand and express ourselves in our mother
tongue, to establish emotional and affective ties with other members
of the family, to rehearse social interactions on the concept of
oneself, which will form the basis of personal and social
relationships and the development of a healthy self esteem (Melgosa,
2008). Children who exhibit antisocial behaviors are more likely to
live in homes with more negative and less competent family management
styles (Marshal and Hunt, 2002).
On the other hand, Heward (2006) asserts that, the relationship
children have with their parents, particularly during the early years,
is critical to the way they learn to behave. Observation and analysis
of parentchild interaction patterns show that parents who treat their
children with love, are sensitive to their children’s needs and
provide praise and attention for desired behaviors tend to have
children with positive behavioral characteristics. Antisocial children
are more likely to come from homes in which parents are inconsistent
disciplinarians, use harsh and excessive punishment to manage behavior
problems, do not monitor the whereabouts and activities of their
children, and show little love and affection for good behavior. When
such conditions are present in the home, a young child may be
“literally trained to be aggressive during episodes of conflict with
family members” (Iwaniec, 2006).
A family may also have great impact in the child’s social emotional
behavioral problems. Children who are brought up in families
characterized by parental violence are in most cases likely to have
social emotional behavioral problems. Another aspect in this category
involves family break up whereby parents’ separation puts a child in a
jeopardy and grief. Some children, due to their tender age, are so
much touched by such incidents so that they become victims of night
mares, confusion and depression.
Hallahan & Kauffman (2006) argue that, children whose parents are
violent and have arrest records also tend to become violent and to
find themselves in trouble with the law. Parental over alcoholism
leading to negligence towards care of their children, is another
factor. Some parents after coming home from drinking, they make a lot
of commotion especially at night. This scares and worries children.
Stress within the family can have a significant negative effects on
students and their ability in focus on learning while at school. Such
stress is often associated with health and emotional problems, high
rate in divorce, orphanage, hunger, poverty, lack of affection, large
number of single parent families, blended as well as extended
families. Nonetheless, parents and families play a huge part in
determining a social emotional development. Early relationships with
parents lay the foundation on which social ability and peer
relationships are built. Parents who support positive emotional
development interact with their children affectionately, show
consideration for their feelings, desires, and needs; express interest
in their daily activities, respect their opinions, and provide support
during times of anxiety.
2.3.4 School Related Factors as Causes of Social Emotional Behaviors
School is where children spend the largest portion of their time
outside the home. Therefore, it makes sense to observe carefully what
takes place in schools in an effort to identify factors that may
contribute to problem behavior. Also, because most children with
social emotional behaviors are not identified until they are in
school, it seems reasonable to question whether school actually
contributes to the incidence of behavioral disorders.
Schooling practices that contribute to the development of social
emotional behavioral problems in children include complicated learning
programs, ineffective instruction that results in academic failure,
unclear rules, inconsistent and punitive discipline practices,
infrequent teacher praise and approval for academic and social
emotional behavior (Heward, 2006).
A school as a social agent has a big part to play in imparting
knowledge and has also a role to modify children’s behavior. Children
who exhibit social emotional behavioral disorders are supposed to
become better after completion of school; however, the impact of
school sometimes triggers behavioral problems and this can be caused
by both teachers and pupils’ misdeeds.
2.3.5 Peer Related Factors as Causes of Social Emotional Behaviors
Peer bullying in schools often leads to social emotional behavioral
problems. Peer bullying in schools according to Iwaniec (2006), is of
three main types: Firstly, it is intended to cause physical or
psychological harm or fear. Secondly, repetition or continuous intent
to cause harm or fear over time; thirdly, is the wielding of power
over othersthis include physical assault especially among boys which
aims at imposing fear, threat and subjection; while girls bullying is
more psychological in nature and it is characterized by nasty words,
insults cyber bullying that is using electronic devices through means
of email, instant messages, blogs, mobile phones and websites.
Children must be provided with secure and safe social emotional
environment that prevents any form of bullying or violence where they
can be effective learners and integrate the development of social
emotional skills with all aspects of school life.
2.3.6 Teacher Related Factors as Causes of Social Emotional Behaviors
In most cases, teachers are not only supposed to be perpetrators of
academic excellence in schools but also care takers, guardians,
counselors, advisors, and behavioral modifiers of children. However,
it has been observed that some of them are contributing much to social
emotional behavioral disruption of children. Cooper et al., (2002)
assert that, pupils’ behavior is often a function of teacher behavior,
and that if teachers wish to change the behavior of their pupils they
need to consider whether it is in any way, a product of the
environment, which exists in the classroom and school and may have to
look hard at their behavior.
Failure to comply with the above factor, teachers become the sources
of social emotional behavioral difficulties in different ways.
Firstly, teachers may have too high or too low expectations for
child’s achievement in academics or conduct; when the child fails to
portray the expected standards teachers become aggressive,
humiliating, harsh and so forth; and the respective student may be
severely affected. Sometimes the pupil’s poor academic performance may
be a result of the teacher’s poor academic instructions. Secondly,
slackness, too rigid or inconsistent discipline in school whereby the
school environment might be such that the misbehaving child is
rewarded with recognition even if that attention is criticism or
punishment), whereas, the child who behaves properly is ignored.
Thirdly, verbal assaulting (such as, name calling, put downs through
insults and sarcastic remarks, verbal threats and public humiliation
of pupils); threatening, and bullying children are other factors which
cause social emotional behavioral disorders. Other forms of social
emotional behavioral abuse include bullying children, rejecting,
neglecting or isolating pupils in favor of others or failing to
intervene when pupils are being bullied by peers (Hallahan & Kauffman,
2006).
2.3.7 Cultural Factors Causing Social Emotional Behaviors
Environment and culture are the context in which behavior unfolds. No
one lives in a social vacuum. Everybody is a member of an immediate
family, an extended family, or a community network (neighborhood,
church, clubs). All of these environments shape and influence each
individual’s growth and development, whether positively or negatively.
Rarely does a single negative experience lead to or aggravate social
emotional behavior, but combinations of poverty, abuse, neglect,
parental stress, inconsistent expectations and rules, confusion, and
turmoil over long periods of time can do so. Children learn many
aggressive behaviors by observing parents, siblings, playmates, and
people portrayed in television and movies. Individuals who model
aggression are more likely to be imitated if they are high in social
status and are observed to receive rewards and escape punishment for
their aggression, especially if they experience no unpleasant
consequences or obtaining reward by overcoming their victims.
Following the technological advancement, the current generation is
termed as the electronic cultural generation; hence, there is a big
use of electronic equipments, device, and appliances such as
computers, televisions, smart phones, bipods and so on. The use of
these devices has so much occupied the youths time so that it has a
great impact in their style of living and behaving. This being the
case, children and youth are being exposed to the world of violence in
media (especially TV, motion pictures and computer games) leading to
use of terror as a means of coercion, hence, bullying.
2.3.8 Sociological Factors That Cause Social Emotional Behaviors
Sociological factors can be referred to as influences on individual
behavior attributable to the social values and/or behavior of the
groups to which an individual belongs, or aspires to belong.
Sociological factors usually take many forms and may help explain why
human behavior goes wrong or right, for that matter. Social factors
reflect the region and socioeconomic background from which you come.
Children in impoverished families often exhibit social emotional
behaviors. These children tend to be hyperactive and aggressive. Their
out of control social behaviors can lead to poor performance in
school. One reason for this connection is negative feelings and lack
of attention from parents who are experiencing economic stress. The
longer the poverty persists, the more troublesome the social emotional
behavior will be.
2.4 Indicators and Characteristics of Social Emotional Behaviors
Hogdon (1999) asserts that, when a student is not doing what I want
him or her to be doing or when a student is doing something I do not
want him or her to be doing such will be referred to as having
behavioral disorders. Moreover, she insists that, a student will be
regarded as emotionally or behavioral disordered is he or she
demonstrates these characteristics: when a student’s behavior is
causing injury or harm to himself or others. When a student’s behavior
prevents him from participating effectively in his life routines, and
when a student uses behavior in an inappropriate or ineffective means
of communication.
Further, Hogdon (1999) emphasizes that when the student is engaging in
behaviors or activities that are different from what is expected from
him because of age, ability level, location, event, or activity, or
when the student is not following or complying with the rules,
routines, or expectations of specific occasions or environments, or
when the student is not performing skills or engaging in actions or
interactions effectively; when a student does anything that calls
attention to himself, making him significantly different from his
peers, or when a student is doing anything that makes his parent or
teacher “crazy”. Moreover, Heward (2006) and Huston, et al., (1984)
assert that, children with social emotional behavior are characterized
primarily by behavior that falls significantly beyond the norms of
their cultural and age group on two dimensions: externalizing and
internalizing behaviors. Both patterns of abnormal behavior have
adverse effects on children’s academic achievement and social
relationship.
2.4.1 Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors
Externalizing behaviors involve actions that are hyperactive,
aggressive, and/or delinquent. Children with these syndromes lack
behavior control and frequently have immature moral judgment. They
misinterpret other people’s intentions, often seeing hostility where
other children would not see it. Externalizing problems are
particularly persistent over time. When children with these patterns
grow into adulthood, they exhibit higher rates of antisocial
behavior, illegal behavior, marital problems, and alcoholism (Huston,
et al., 1984).
Moreover, Heward (2006) asserts that in the classroom, children with
eternalizing behaviors frequently do the following: get out of their
seats, yell, talk out, curse, disturb peers, hit or fight, ignore the
teacher, complain, argue excessively, steal, lie, destroy property, do
not comply with directions, have temper tantrums, are excluded from
peercontrolled activities, do not respond to teacher corrections, and
do not complete assignments. Further, Marshall and Hunt (2002) affirm
that children with social emotional behaviors by definition exhibit
behaviors that affect their social and emotional development.
Externalizing behaviors such as violence and aggression may be
directed towards classmates and many children with externalizing
behaviors do not have the skills for reflecting on and restricting
their behavior.
On the other hand, Coleman (1996) states that, Internalizing behavior
include depression and withdrawal syndromes. Obviously, such behavior
limits a child’s chances to take part in and learn from the school and
leisure activities in which normal children participate. Students with
internalizing behavior problems often do not pay attention to their
teachers to avoid challenging them and interrupting instructional
process. In general, both internalizing and externalizing behavioral
problems are linked with academic difficulties. If such problems are
left undiagnosed, scholastic performance, social interactions,
selfesteem, and life skills are affected.
2.5 Prevalence of Social Emotional Behavior among Children
Glassberg, et al., (1998) assert that the term prevalence as applied
in special education refers to the total number of individuals with a
specific disability in a given population at a given time. Prevalence
is expressed as a percentage of the population exhibiting a specific
exceptionality.
2.5.1 Social Emotional Behavior as Related to Gender and Age
Males are significantly more likely than females to fall within each
major disability group. The largest disparity is within the category
of SEB, where boys comprise some 80% of the population. Boys outnumber
girls in the SEB classification about 4:1 or 5:1 (depending on the
research studies). This is due to the fact that, most prominent theory
argues that boys are more likely to exhibit externalizing behaviors:
these behaviors are directed “outward”, typically toward other people;
they are disturbing to others and generally result in considerable
disruption in classroom. They include aggressive behaviors (such as
punching, hitting other people, temper tantrums, swearing, disruptive
acts, and other types of noncompliant behaviors) whereas, girls are
more likely to exhibit internalizing behaviors: these are behaviors
that are directed “inward” or “within the self”.
Children and youth with these behaviors are far less likely to be
identified by teachers and families because they do not create chaos
that characterizes children and youth with internalizing behaviors
(including worrying, shyness, depression, apathy, anxiety, social
withdrawal and low selfesteem). On the other hand, most students with
SEB who are receiving special education are in the 12 17 year age
range. These students are rarely identified before they enter school.
The reasons for this fact being that, the problems are rarely
identified early or students with SEB are neglected (Glassberg, et
al., 1998).
Moreover, Heward (2006) assert that, the vast majority of children
identified for special education because of social emotional behaviors
are boys. Boys identified as social emotionally disordered are likely
to have externalizing disorders and to exhibit antisocial, aggressive
behavior. Although girls with social emotional disorders are more
likely to show internalizing disorders such as anxiety and social
withdrawal, research shows that girls have problems with aggression
and antisocial behavior as well.
Academic Achievement of Students with Social Emotional Behaviors vary,
ranging from 25% to 97% (Reid et al., 2004). However, there is still
significant work to be done. In general, there is a need to understand
multiple outcomes of child development (social, academic, and
emotional) within the context of multiple factors (social, and
community situated) and to understand how these factors interact
across levels of family, community, and schooling across
sociocultural settings and the impact they bring towards ones school
academic performance (Bullis and Yovanoff 2006; Walker et al., 2004).
The estimated number of children with social emotional behaviors vary.
This is due to the fact that, subjective criteria are used by some
classroom teachers in identifying the child who is socially and
emotionally disturbed. Another factor is the age of the child. It
should be appreciated that some social emotional problems found in
children, especially those in preschool and lower primary grades are
transient and disappear as the child grows older. The third factor is
that the cultural factors play a significant role in interpreting who
is social emotionally disturbed and who is not (Kauffman, 1977).
Nevertheless, Estimates of how many children have social emotional
behaviors vary widely. Heward (2006), suggest that a rule of one–third
describes the prevalence of behavior disorders: that approximately 33%
of children will experience behavior problems that concern their
teachers at some time during any given year, that the behavior of
about onethird of those children will require intervention or
assistance of school personnel outside the regular class room, and
one–third of that group (about 3%) will have social emotional behavior
significant enough to warrant special education.
2.5.2 Social Emotional Behaviors and Juvenile Delinquency
Social emotional behavior is now a big problem in many countries of
the world. It affects not only adults but also children and youths and
disrupts their behavior. As a result, it interferes with school
performance. That is why early recognition of social emotional
behaviors in infants and preschool children is necessary for best
developmental outcomes. Social emotional behaviors continue over time
and are highly resistant to change. It is not surprising that a strong
relationship exists between childhood behavioral problems,
delinquency, and later criminality. If left, it places a child at high
risk for persistent for social emotional behaviors, underachievement,
school dropout and ultimately delinquency (Iwaniec, 2006).
Heward (2006) asserts that, the word “delinquent” is a legal term;
however, many of the offenses that an adolescent commits to be labeled
delinquent constitute a behavioral disorder. Arrest rates for
juveniles increase sharply during the junior high school years.
Moreover, students and adolescents who have juvenile delinquency have
also learning disabilities in specific areas such as reading, writing,
arithmetic, or speech (verbal) disorders brought about by
dysfunctional of brain neurological caused by in heredity or
environmental factors (Heward, 2006).
2.6 Relationship Between Social Emotional Behaviors And School
Academic
Performance
A young child’s ability to learn is assured by a sense of security and
stability, and continuous relationships with adults, including their
families and communities. The development of emotional self being and
social ability in the early years plays a critical part in shaping the
way children think, learn, react to challenges, and develop
relationships throughout their lives. Every step along the way is
filled with multiple academic skills that parents and teachers want
students to learn to prepare them for independent adulthood. The
traditional reading, writing and arithmetic are presented from a young
age. Those academics are embellished with endless numbers of other
skill areas and pieces of information that people deem important for
students to master. Some students accomplish the learning eagerly and
enthusiastically while others are uninterested or struggle to learn
(Hogdon, 1999).
2.6.1 Current Classroom Instruction for Students with SEB
The focus of most SEB programs is behavior management, not academic
instruction. Recent evidence has revealed that teachers in
selfcontained classrooms for SEB students devote only 30% of the
school day to academic instruction (Wehby, et al., 2003). In a regular
classroom setting there is little focus on the specific academic needs
of students with SEB. Wehby, et al., (2003) suggested four possible
factors that contribute to this lack of academic instruction: Firstly,
student behavior interferes with instruction. The social and
behavioral challenges of students with SEB frequently disrupt the
class, interfering with the instruction and learning of the student
and of the class in general.
Secondly, students influence teacher behavior. Because the most
consistent interactions between the student with SEB and the teacher
are likely to occur around instances of inappropriate behavior, there
tends to be a lack of praise or positive statements, low rates of
instructional demands, and high rates of reprimand. Thirdly, lack of
teacher preparation. The training of most preservice teachers centers
on the management of antisocial behavior, placing little or no
emphasis on effective instruction for this population. Fourth, lack of
research on the academic needs and best instructional practices for
children and youth with SEB. According to Wehby, et al., (2003), the
last of these is the most disconcerting because students with SEB
often have academic deficits similar to students with learning
disabilities but do not receive the same academic focus.
Most students with social emotional behaviors perform one or more
years below grade level academically. Many of these students exhibit
significant deficiencies in reading (Coleman and Vaughn, 2000;
Pickles, Hagell, Rutter and Yule, 1996) and in Math achievement
(Greenbaum et al., 1996). In additional to the challenges to learning
caused by behavioral excesses and deficits, many students with social
emotional behaviors also have learning disabilities and/or language
delays, which compound their difficulties in mastering academic skills
and contents (Glassberg, et al., 1999; Kiser, et al., and Hester,
2000).
Hinshaw (1992) reported that, inattention and hyperactivity are the
stronger correlates of academic achievement problems than aggressive
behaviors during childhood whereas, antisocial behaviors and
delinquency are considered as the stronger correlates with low
academic achievement during adolescence. Nonetheless, Marshall and
Hunt (2002) assert that, internalized behaviors such as withdrawal or
depression may result in the children being teased or rejected by
classmates, and may cause great difficulty to interact with others.
It is also argued that, the strong correlation between low academic
achievement and behavioral problems is not a one way relationship. The
disruptive and defiant behavior of students with social emotional
behavioral disorders almost always leads to academic failure. This
failure in turn predisposes them to further antisocial conduct. Many
more children with social emotional behavioral disorders score in the
slow learner or mildly related range on IQ tests than do children
without disabilities (Hallenback and Kauffman, 1995).
Nonetheless, Marshall and Hunt (2002), assert that most children with
social emotional behaviors are in the average range of intellectual
functioning, yet do not do well in school. Although the extent to
which behavior affects academic performance varies according to the
individual child, poor school work and underachievement in class are
often cited as characteristics of children with social emotional
disorders. Researchers have found the relationship between more
difficult academic tasks and increased problem behavior and lower
attention to task. Low achievement in school also may be associated
with poor work habits, noncompliant behaviors, or poor attention
skills.
Most children with social emotional behaviors are in the average range
of intellectual functioning; yet do not do well in school. Although
the extent to which behavior affects academic performance varies
according to the individual child, poor school work and
underachievement in class are often cited as characteristics of
children with social emotional behaviors. Researchers have found a
relationship between more difficult academic tasks and increased
problem behavior and lower attention to task (Jack, and Danny, 1996).
Research suggests that, students with social emotional behaviors
perform at approximately one standard deviation below the mean, or
close to one year behind their expected achievement level. In fact,
Glassberg, Hooper, and Mattson (1999), found that about 53 percent of
a sample of students recently identified with behavior disorders also
met the definition for learning disabilities. This information
suggests that teachers must recognize the importance of academic
assessment and effective educational interventions for these children
(Marshall and Hunt, 2002).
Hinshaw (1992) reported that, poor academic performance is one of the
general characteristics of students with social emotional behaviors.
Also, anxiety disorders are associated with lower academic
achievement. Moreover, Haddock and Maio (2010) affirm that, there is
robust evidence that social emotional behaviors are related with
academic difficulties. Students with internalizing behaviors often do
not pay attention to their teachers to avoid challenging them and
interrupting instructional process. If such problems are left
undiagnosed, scholastic performance, social interactions, self esteem,
and life skills are affected.
For instance, Hinshaw (1992) reported that, inattention and
hyperactivity are the stronger correlates of academic achievement
problems than aggressive behaviors during childhood whereas,
antisocial behaviors and delinquency are considered as the stronger
correlates with low academic achievement during adolescence. Studies
show that many children in the societies demonstrate behavioral
problems, which may also impact their academic achievement (Hussain,
2009; Prince and Goodman, 2005).
Therefore, it was important to explore the relationship between Social
emotional behavior and school academic performance among secondary
school students. Hoope and Mattson (1999) assert that, in addition to
the challenges to learn caused by behavioral disorders and deficits,
many students with social emotional behaviors also have learning
disabilities and language delays, which compound difficulties in
mastering academic skills and content. Cullian (2002) asserts that,
most students with social emotional behaviors perform one or more
years below grade level academically. Moreover, Greenbaum et al (1996)
argue that, many of these students exhibit significant deficiencies in
reading and in mathematics achievement.
Nonetheless, children who are victims of different odds, in most
cases, have problems of depression, fear, full of anxiety (worries),
and poor school performance. Victims of bullying for instance are more
likely to underachieve in education because of school avoidance or
truancy. Upon the question of what could help children with social
emotional behaviors to perform better and stay in school, the first
and most frequent answer is related to aggression, beating and
bullying. Being beaten by teachers in class and bullied by other
children during school hours, afternoon, or evening seems to be the
main reasons for the children to perform low and drop out of school.
Through being bullied, a learner may develop the habit of bullying
others (Hogdon, 1999).
2.6.2 Empirical Evidence
Lugt (2007) conducted a research on Academic achievement of students
with Emotional and Behavioral disorders: A review of the research and
reported the following: Trout et al., (2003) reviewed the research on
the academic status of children with SEB and found that, of the 70
data sets in which the academic status of the students with SEB was
described (in 35 studies), none reported that students achieved above
grade level. Furthermore, 32 out of 35 reports (91%) indicated that
students with SEB were academically deficient (particularly in reading
and mathematics). In this study, the authors reviewed the literature
on student characteristics, students’ academic status, and trends in
research.
Nonetheless, various researches and literatures have exhibited that,
there are a number of indicators related to social emotional disorders
that need to be noted so as to deal with learners demonstrating such
behaviors. For example, some children will exhibit aggression,
hyperactivity, and withdrawal behaviors leading to social isolation,
failure in making and maintaining friendship with peers, which in turn
will affect their academic performance. Lane (2007) in her research on
academic performance of students with social emotional behaviors
served in a selfcontained setting argued that: In recent years,
increasing evidence also has established the negative academic
outcomes typical of this population.
For example, students with social emotional behavior, earn lower
grades, are less likely to pass classes, and experience higher rates
of school dropout than typical students and students with other high
incidence disabilities (Wagner and Cameto 2004). This review confirmed
that students with SEB generally perform one or two years below grade
level, and that intervention programs that focus solely on social
behavior ignore the students’ academic deficits.
2.7 Synthesis and Research Gap
2.7.1 Synthesis of the Literature Reviewed
Social emotional behaviors play a significant role in the school
academic performance of secondary school students in Korogwe and
Tanzania as a whole. Pursuing a study on the relationship between
social emotional behaviors and school academic performance was
therefore important. This would display the distinctions between
school academic Performance of students with social emotional
behaviors from that of those who are without. The results of this
study would provide insights to students, teachers, school owners and
administrators, guidance counselors, parents, policy makers,
curriculum developers, and all stakeholders in ensuring that students
with social emotional behaviors benefit from school materials.
It is high time that the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
(MoEST) started the establishment of refresher courses to all teachers
on the assessment, identification and intervention of students with
social emotional behaviors so as to understand how to deal accordingly
with them. When all teachers have understood and gained the knowledge
of identifying these learners hence involve them in the learning
process, their academic performance is expected to improve.
Smith & Rivera, (1993 & 1997), assert that a teacher who is unskilled
in managing students’ individual differences may create an environment
wherein aggression, frustration, and withdrawal are common responses
to the environment or the teacher. But, teachers, skilled at managing
classroom behavior can systematically select interventions that match
students’ behavior and apply them consistently. When effective
teaching and behavior management methods are in place, students’
outcome improve.
2.7.2 Research Gap
Most of the reviewed studies have focused on the relationship between
social emotional behaviors and the school academic performance among
students. The review suggests that there is a need of equipping
teachers, parents, school owners and administrators, and all
stakeholders with the knowledge of characteristics and indicators of
children with social emotional behaviors. Numerous studies have been
conducted on a few but specific aspects related to the relationship
between social emotional behaviors and school academic performance.
For example Nelson et al. (2004) conducted a crosssectional study
with a random sample of 155 (126 boys and 29 girls), Kindergarten to
grade 12 students with SEB examining the extent to which students with
SEB experienced academic achievement deficits.
Data were collected over a 4months period on the academic achievement
(mathematics, reading, and written language skills) of the students,
their age and gender. Findings obtained were as follows: First, the
samples as a whole (both boys and girls) experienced large academic
achievement deficit in all content areas. Second, mathematics deficits
tended to increase with age. Third, it was found that, students with
SEB who exhibited externalizing behaviors (attention, aggression, and
delinquency) were more likely to experience academic achievement
deficits in all content areas than students who evidenced
internalizing behaviors.
Moreover, several studies have shown that students with SEB have
belowaverage cognitive functioning (Coleman, 1996) and large academic
deficits with externalizing behaviors, particularly related to
reading, mathematics, and written language achievement (Nelson,
Benner, Lane and Smith, 2004; Trout et al., 2003). Ruhl and
Berlinghoff (1992) suggested that between 33% and 81% of children with
social emotional behavior have academic difficulties. From these
studies it is clear that the academic performance of students with SEB
is problematic. The authors concluded that many SEB (both
externalizing and internalizing) are not directly related to academic
underachievement, but rather that they are associated with attention
problems which in turn have a negative impact on academic achievement.
Problems can get better because of teachers’ actionsand they can get
worse for the same reason. In other words, what educators do makes a
difference. For example, a teacher who is unskilled in managing the
classroom or insensitive to students’ individual differences may
create an environment wherein aggression, frustration, and withdrawal
are common responses to the environment or the teacher. But teachers,
skilled at managing classroom behavior can systematically select
interventions that match students’ behavior and apply them
consistently.
When effective teaching and behavior management methods are in place,
students’ outcome improves (Rivera &Smith, 1997; Smith & Rivera,
1993). Basing on above literature reviews and studies, it is obvious
that a good number of studies similar to this study have been written.
However, in some areas, not very much has been covered. Basing on this
fact, it is vital that emphasis is taken to cover the gap in depth.
Thus, this study sought to fill in this gap through findings and
conclusions.
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The major purpose of this chapter is to identify the methods that
would be used in collecting data for the study. The chapter describes
the research methodology, research paradigm and research design used.
It also deals with the geographical area of the study, the sampling
procedures, sample size, ethical reflections, methods and tools of
data collection used by researcher.
3.1 Study Area, Research Paradigm and Research Design
3.1.1 Study Area
A study area is the geographical location in which the data was
collected. The researcher actually in person visited the area during
field data collection.

Figure 3.1: Map of Tanzania Showing Study Area
This study was conducted in Korogwe district, Tanzania specifically
Korogwe Town council, which is in the NorthEast location of Mainland
Tanzania. Korogwe Town Council lies between latitude 5.15 or 5° 9'
south of the equator. It also lies between longitude 38.44 or 38° 26'
East. Korogwe town council is one of the eleven councils that form
Tanga region. Others include Handeni TC, Tanga CC, Pangani DC, Lushoto
DC, Bumbuli DC, Muheza DC, Handeni DC, Mkinga DC, Kilindi DC and
Korogwe DC. This council has emerged as an important commercial hub
and service center on the Dar es Salaam and Tanga to Arusha highways.
Further, Korogwe Town Council serves as the Administrative
headquarters of both the Korogwe Town Council and Korogwe District
Councils. Korogwe town council has a population of 12 Secondary
schools (9 government and 3 private ones). It has a total of 5,201
students (whereby 2,932 are girls and 2,269 are boys). There are 380
teachers (whereas, 222 are male teachers and the remaining 158 are
females). The average size of the schools thus is around 433 students.
The researcher selected Korogwe district as area of study for various
reasons: Firstly, it is found in a low land area as compared to other
districts, hence making it easily accessible by a researcher.
Secondly, the district has some features that are found in other
districts–it has both urban and rural areas. Since the researcher
intended to pick some schools from both settings, it was therefore
reasonable to choose it as a sample district. Thirdly, time frame.
Since the researcher was rushing with time, it was therefore proper to
choose Korogwe district as area of study. Fourth, availability of
teachers was easy in Korogwe district than from other districts such
as Lushoto or Pangani where teachers are scattered mostly in the
remote places hence making it very difficult to meet them.
3.1.2 Research Paradigm
Research paradigms are the mental and philosophical dispositions a
researcher may have, consciously or unconsciously, on the nature of
knowledge, how it is acquired, and the nature of human beings, as
respondents, in any social reality under microscope, and can be
qualitative or quantitative (Omari, 2011). The study employed
quantitative research paradigms due to the fact that, the researcher
needed a detailed understanding of the issues at hand through talking
directly to secondary school teachers, going to their working places,
and allowing them to independently respond to the given questionnaires
on students’ emotional behaviors. The researcher wanted to explore
teachers’ perception of the problem. The quantitative paradigm enabled
the researcher to get independent reflections and observations of all
teachers.
3.1.3 Research Design
Patton (2002) contends that, in an attempt to select a research
design, researchers come up with various questions such as, which
research design is the best for this research problem? Which strategy
will provide the most productive path for addressing the issues at
hand? In the selection for the right design, Patton (2002) in response
to these questions, believe that, “no simple and universal answer to
these questions is possible”. The answer in each case will depend on
the purpose of the study, the scholarly or evaluation audience for the
study, the funds available, the political context, the interest,
abilities, and biases of the researchers.
On the other hand, Tromp and Kombo (2006) affirm that, research design
can be thought of as the structure of the research. It is the “glue”
that holds all of the elements in a research project together. A
design is used to structure the research, to show how all of the major
parts of the research project hang together to try to address the
central research questions. It is important to understand the
relationship among various designs. This will assist the researcher in
making design choices and thinking about the strengths and weaknesses
of different designs.
In addition, Omari (2011) asserts that a research design is a distinct
plan on how a research problem will be attacked. Ten such designs
include historical research design, survey research design,
developmental research design, case study research design, correlation
research design, causal comparative research design, true experimental
research design, quasi experimental research design, action research
design, and evaluation research design. This study employed survey
study research design method. This type of research design was applied
in this study for various reasons as asserted by Kothari (2004):
Firstly, surveytype research design usually is applicable for larger
samples. It gathers information from a relatively large number of
cases at a particular time.
Secondly, it is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist,
opinions that are held, processes that are going on, effects that are
evident or trends that are developing. Thirdly, surveys are usually
appropriate in case of social and behavioral sciences. Fourth, survey
designs are concerned with hypothesis formulation and testing the
analysis of relationship between nonmanipulated variables. Lewis et
al., (2012) assert that, the survey strategy is usually associated
with a deductive research approach. It is most frequently used to
answer ‘what’, ‘who’, ‘where’, ‘how much’ and ‘how many’ questions.
Surveys using questionnaires are popular as they allow the collection
of standardized data from a sizeable population in a highly economical
way, allowing easy comparison. The survey design allows you to collect
quantitative data which you can analyze quantitatively using
descriptive and inferential statistics.
3.2 Sample and Sample Size
A sample is a small proportion of a population selected for
observations and analysis. Samples are not chosen haphazardly or
carelessly. A carefully drawn sample can provide useful results which
represent the entire population. However, it should be stressed that,
if you fail to draw your sample correctly, you will end up with wrong
conclusion (Omari, 2011). Moreover, Kothari (2004) asserts that the
size of the sample should neither be excessively large nor too small.
It should be optimum. An optimum sample is one which fulfills the
requirements of efficiency, representativeness, reliability and
flexibility. As such, budgetary constraint must invariably be taken
into consideration when we decide the sample size.
In assessing teachers’ perception of “the relationship between social
emotional behaviors and school academic performance among secondary
school students in Korogwe district”, a sample of 28 out of 308
teachers was selected. Moreover, four out of 12 secondary schools (two
of them Joel Bendera and Ngombezi secondary schools found in the
rural areas whereas, the remaining two Semkiwa and Korogwe girls’
secondary schools were from urban area (such that 15 were male
respondents and 13 being female ones), was used.
A researcher conducted an assessment to these teachers aiming at
gaining some information on their perception regarding the indicators
and characteristics of social emotional behavior, the prevalence of
SEB and the relationship between SEB and school academic performance
among secondary school students. It was therefore very important to
assess these teachers to identify their perception on the problem and
the way it relates to students academic performance. From the study,
it was revealed that social emotional behavior is a challenge to all
schools in the range. Teachers are troubled with this challenging
behavior in almost every school. This being the case, it was therefore
genuine to select only four out of 12 secondary schools so as to
conduct a study. On the other hand, since the research applied a
quantitative approach, the use of 28 teachers was reasonable as Patton
puts it:
Sample size depends on what you want to know, the purpose of the
study, what is at stake, what will be useful…with available time and
resources (Patton, 2002:244).
Questionnaires were then given to these teachers. Items included in
the questionnaires include gender, age, and educational level of the
respondents so as to come up with a good representative number of
respondents as illustrated in Table 1.
Table 3.1: Age, Education Level, and Gender of Respondents
component
Age range
Male
Female
Total
Age (Years)
2529
04
05
09
3039
09
06
15
4049
01
00
01
5059
01
02
03
Total
15
13
28
Levels of education
Diploma
05
04
09
Degree
10
09
19
Total
15
13
28
Gender
Male
Female
Total
15
13
28
Source: Field data (2016)
3.3 Sampling Procedures
Breakwell et al., (2000) define a sample as a set of individuals
selected from a population and intended to represent the population
under study. Usually, it is impractical to study everybody in your
target population. Patton (2002) affirms that, there is no fixed
number or percentage of subjects that determine the size of an
adequate sample. Samples of 30 units or more are usually considered
large samples and those of fewer than 30 are small samples. Sample
size depends on what you want to know, the purpose of the inquiry,
what is at stake, what will be useful, what will have credibility, and
what can be done within available time and resources.
The study was about assessment of the relationship between social
emotional behaviors and school academic performance among secondary
school students in Korogwe. In order to come up with the required
data, 28 teachers (24 subject teachers and 4 discipline teachers) from
four secondary schools were involved in the exercise. Purposive
sampling techniques were used to select the sample. A purposive
sampling technique also known as judgmental, selective or subjective
sampling, is a type of nonprobability sampling that is most effective
when one needs to study a certain cultural domain with knowledgeable
experts within. Purposive sampling relies on the judgment of the
researcher when it comes to selecting the units (such as people,
cases, organizations, events, pieces of data) that are to be studied.
Usually the sample being investigated is quite small, especially when
compared with probability sampling techniques. Purposive sampling may
also be used with both qualitative and quantitative research
techniques (Kothari, 2004). The researcher used purposive sampling
technique for the study was conducted by the use of quantitative
research paradigm. Data were therefore collected whereby both the
tables and simple descriptive interpretation were applied.
3.4 Data Collection Tools and Procedures
Tromp and Kombo (2006) assert that, data collection refers to the
gathering of information to serve or prove the hypothesis at hand. For
example, without upto date and comprehensive data about the
characteristics of population, no government can plan and build the
facilities and resources that effectively serve the citizens. Data
collection helps to clarify facts. In this study, primary data were
collected through group administered questionnaires. Enon (1995)
asserts that, the questionnaire is the most widely used technique in
our society. It involves the use of written down items to which the
respondent individually responds in writing. The items are in the form
of statements or questions. The selected 28 teachers were grouped in
one class and given questionnaire each to fill independently in given
time and supervision. In so doing, respondents answered confidentially
and fairly so the issue of replication and cheating was eliminated.
3.5 Data Analysis Methods
Data analysis refers to examining what has been collected and in
making deductions and inferences about the phenomenon (Tromp and
Kombo, 2006). This study analyzed data quantitatively. Both tables and
descriptive analytical analysis were applied for easy reading and
interpretation of data based on information collected.
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Data
3.6.1 Validity of Data
Validity of instrument measurement is defined as the extent to which
they measure what they were supposed to measure (Jean et al., 2000).
Valid assessments, however, ensure that what students are asked to do
is a direct reflection of stated standards, goals, expectations,
and/or targeted learning outcomes. If assessments are valid, teachers
can use that information to improve their teaching, and students can
use that information to improve their learning (Parkay and Stanford,
2004). In order to get comprehensive research data, there should be
validity in research instrument that suit to the objective of the
study and research questions.
Enon (1998) asserts that, validity refers to the quality that a
procedure or a research tool used in the research is accurate,
correct, true, meaningful and right. Validity, therefore, implies that
we want to obtain what we are supposed to measure. So if whatever we
use in the study enables us to get what we want to get then there is
validity. In conducting this study, 28 respondents (seven from each of
the four selected secondary schools), were placed in a classroom where
they were given some instruments to be used independently and under
supervision on the assessment of relationship between social emotional
behaviors and the school academic performance among secondary school
students in Korogwe district.
These respondents were assessed on their understanding of the
characteristics and indicators of social emotional behaviors. Before
conducting the study, respondents were introduced to some basic
features of individuals with social emotional behaviors so that it
becomes easy during the course of action of responding to the
questionnaire.
3.6.2 Reliability of Data
The term ‘reliability’ can be defined as the extent to which other or
same researchers would arrive at similar results if they studied the
same case using exactly the same procedures more than once (Borg et
al., 2007). Further, Parkay and Stanford (2004) define the term
reliability as the degree to which an assessment provides results that
are consistent over time. In other words, an entire test (or
individual test item) is considered to be reliable if it yields
similar results at different times and under similar conditions.
Through the pilot study, it was possible to amend items in which
ambiguous and inconsistent questions were removed and others were
(where necessary), modified so as to fit with the objectives of the
study.
3.7 Ethical Reflections and Precautions
Breakwell et al., (2000) assert that, ethical considerations must play
a role in assessing the feasibility of studying a topic. For example,
most people today would consider it unethical for a psychologist to
deliberately provoke aggressive behaviors from children so that the
characteristics of those behaviors can be studied. However, in the
past, different ethical standards have applied. Because the subjects
of interviews were human beings, extreme care was taken to avoid any
harm to them. It is good for a researcher to respect their humanity,
dignity, consent and readiness in information sharing rather than
forcing or using researcher’s influence to collect information. This,
according to Denzin &Lincoln (1994), include right to privacy
(protecting the identity of the subject, protection from
harmful–physical, emotional or any other kind) and informed consent
received from the subject after he/she has been carefully and fully
informed about the research.
Moreover, Borg et al., (2007) affirm that every researcher thus needs
to consider carefully before, during, and after the conduct of a
research study, the ethical concerns that can affect their research
participants. Moreover, Omari et al., (1989) assert that, the purpose
of considering ethical issues in research is to protect human rights
and privacy from being infringed by scientific experimentation and to
safeguard the credibility of research and the investigators. The
researcher made sure that respect to the participants’ humanity,
consent, and readiness to information sharing was observed.
Participants were not forced to be interviewed or to participate in
the questionnaires.
3.7.1 Informed Consent
To avoid deception and covertness toward participants in the study,
special attention was paid by explaining the topic under study, and
the purpose of the study in a comprehensive way. This enabled all
participants to understand the purpose of the study and set them free
in giving out their views on the study. Omari et al., (1989) assert
that, consent for children and mentally sick persons should be sought
from the parents or the guardian. On the other hand, Borg et al.,
(2007) assert that researchers must inform each individual about what
will occur during the research study, the information to be disclosed
to the researchers, and the intended use of the research data that are
to be collected. If adults are the participants, they must give their
consent. All these were done in the study.
3.7.2 Moral Issues
No experimental procedure involving some risk to a human being is
permissible if one involving less risk is available (Omari et al.,
1989). Before starting data collection procedures, the researcher
received a clearance letter from the Open University of Tanzania.
Thereafter, the researcher sought for a permission from the Korogwe
Town Director who in turn allowed the researcher to do data collection
activities within the locality.
3.7.3 Privacy
The investigator ensured that confidentiality between him and the
participant is maintained. All collected data would be stored in such
a way that no unauthorized persons can obtain access to them or
identify them with a particular participant (Omari et al., 1989). The
researcher assured the respondents of the protection of human rights
through confidentiality. The names of participants involved in the
study were not mentioned in this research for this particular purpose.
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
This chapter presents the research findings, data analysis and
presentation. The chapter is divided into three sections as per the
study objectives. Findings of each subsection are presented in a
sequential order. Data for this study came from secondary school
teachers as a result of questionnaires provided to them. Questionnaire
is the best technique that guarantees privacy and confidentiality. The
questions included both open and closed ended questionnaires.
4.1 Teachers’ perception of Indicators and Characteristics of SEB
This section presents data on teachers’ perception of the indicators
and characteristics of social emotional behaviors among secondary
school students in Korogwe district. Interviews and questionnaires
were used to collect data from secondary school teachers so as to come
up with relevant data. The statement “The indicators and
characteristics of students with social emotional behaviors” are
recorded in table 2. Options to be selected were strongly agree,
agree, disagree, and strongly disagree.
The statements were intended to assess teachers’ notions of the
indicators and characteristics of social emotional behaviors as
illustrated in table 2. Both the subject teachers and discipline
teachers were involved in giving the statements. The results suggest
that the majority of teachers (57 percent) had an idea of the
indicators and characteristics of SEB very few teachers (8 percent)
were not able to identify them. Further, making inappropriate noises
in class (20 respondents), poor attention span, childish and immature
behaviors, difficult in learning, as well as excessive demand for
teachers attention (each with 18 respondents) followed by destroying
of public property (17 respondents) were the leading indicators and
characteristics of SEB.
Table 4.1: Teachers’ Perception of Indicators and Characteristics of
SEB
Serial No.
Students with social emotional behavior do the following:
Teachers rating
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Total
1
Make inappropriate noises in class.
06
20
02
00
28
2
Have temper tantrums
04
15
07
02
28
3
Have poor attention span
04
18
04
02
28
4
Are quarrelsome and often fight
00
16
06
06
28
5
Are restless and hyperactive and get out seats
04
15
07
02
28
6
Cannot finish assignments in time
11
12
03
02
28
7
Display childish and immature behavior
05
18
04
01
28
8
Blame others for their mistakes
06
16
03
03
28
9
Have difficult in learning
08
18
01
01
28
10
Are uncooperative with teachers
06
16
04
02
28
11
Are easily frustrated in difficult situations
06
14
06
02
28
12
Exclude themselves from peer controlled activities
05
16
05
02
28
13
Put excessive demands for teacher’s attention
01
18
08
01
28
14
Destroy public properties
03
17
03
05
28
15
Steal often
03
14
10
01
28
16
Tell lies often
09
12
06
01
28
Total
81
255
77
36
28
Percentage
18%
57%
17%
08%
100%
Source: Field data (2016)
4.2 Teachers’ Perceived Prevalence of Social Emotional Behaviors
Glassberg, et al., (1998) assert that the term prevalence as applied
in special education refers to the total number of individuals with a
specific disability in a given population at a given time. Prevalence
is expressed as a percentage of the population exhibiting a specific
exceptionality.
This section presents data on teachers’ perception of the prevalence
of social emotional behaviors among secondary school students. The
question was: “which social emotional behaviors happen more often
among secondary school students?” The options in response were:
Happens equally to boys and girls, Happens mostly to boys, Happens
mostly to girls and doesn’t happen at all. The results are given in
Table 4.2.
Table 4.2: Teachers’ Perception of the Prevalence of Social Emotional
Behaviors
S/ No.
How do boys and girls compare on the following social emotional
behaviors?
Nature of prevalence by gender
Happens equally to boys & girls
Happens mostly to boys
Happens mostly to girls
Doesn’t happen at all
Total
1
Make inappropriate noises in class.
08
19
01
00
28
2
Have temper tantrums
02
17
09
00
28
3
Have poor attention span
03
19
04
02
28
4
Are quarrelsome and often fight
04
11
06
07
28
5
Are restless and hyperactive and get out seats
06
12
08
02
28
6
Cannot finish assignments in time
08
15
04
01
28
7
Display childish and immature behavior
04
15
06
03
28
8
Blame others for their mistakes
06
13
06
03
28
9
Have difficult in learning
06
18
03
01
28
10
Are uncooperative with teachers
04
16
06
02
28
11
Are easily frustrated in difficult situations
05
15
06
02
28
12
Exclude themselves from peer controlled activities
03
16
08
01
28
13
Put excessive demands for teacher’s attention
03
15
09
01
28
14
Destroy public properties
04
10
07
07
28
15
Steal often
03
12
10
03
28
16
Tell lies often
08
11
09
00
28
Total
77
234
102
45
28
Percentage
17%
52%
23%
08%
100%
Source: Field data (2016)
The results suggest that all SEB happens more among male students (52
percent), than to female ones. On the other hand, only 8 percent said
they never happen at all. But 17 percent said the behaviors happen
equally to boys and girls. Moreover, the most frequently happening
social emotional behaviors are making of inappropriate noises in class
and poor attention span (both with 19 respondents) followed by
difficult in learning (18 respondents).
4.3 Teachers’ Perceived Relationship between SEB and SAP
This section presents data on teachers’ perception of the relationship
between social emotional behaviors and school academic performance
among secondary school students. Questionnaires were used to collect
data from secondary school teachers. The contention was: “Social
emotional behavior and school academic performance among secondary
school students”. Teachers were to respond by selecting one of the
options from the list of choices: Strongly agree, agree, disagree, and
strongly disagree. The results are given in Table 4.
Table 4: Teachers’ Perceived Relationship Between SEB And School
Academic Performance
S/N
Which of the following SEB affect academic performance of students
most
Teachers’ rating
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Total
Make inappropriate noises in class.
08
16
04
00
28
2
Have temper tantrums
04
14
10
00
28
3
Have poor attention span
08
15
03
02
28
4
Are quarrelsome and often fight
05
15
03
05
28
5
Are restless and hyperactive and get out seats
07
14
06
01
28
6
Cannot finish assignments in time
04
18
03
03
28
7
Display childish and immature behavior
06
12
06
04
28
8
Blame others for their mistakes
02
16
07
03
28
9
Have difficult in learning
08
18
01
01
28
10
Are uncooperative with teachers
07
14
05
02
28
11
Are easily frustrated in difficult situations
06
13
08
01
28
12
Exclude themselves from peer controlled activities
02
14
11
01
28
13
Put excessive demands for teacher’s attention
03
11
08
06
28
14
Destroy public properties
05
12
03
08
28
15
Steal often
05
11
08
04
28
16
Tell lies often
07
08
08
05
28
Total
87
221
94
46
28
Percentage
19.4%
49.3%
21%
10.3%
100%
Source: Field data (2016)
The results have revealed that, the majority of teachers (49.3
percent) were of the views that, there was a very close relationship
between social emotional behaviors and school academic performance. On
the other hand, only 10.3 percent reported that they had no idea at
all on how social emotional behavior relates to school academic
performance. Further, the SEB which most affect students’ academic
performance include not finishing assignment in time and difficult in
learning (both consisting 18 respondents) followed by making
inappropriate noises in class as well as blaming others for their
mistakes (each comprising of 16 respondents).
4.4 Teachers’ Perception of SEB that often Happen in Korogwe District
This section presents data on those social emotional behaviors most
exhibited by secondary school students. The statement was, Mention
five social emotional behaviors often displayed by students in your
school. This was an open ended questionnaire given to 28 respondents
and recorded as depicted in appendix 4. A variety of social emotional
behaviors were mentioned. In response to this statement, here are some
highlights.
23 respondents said; “students with social emotional behaviors disturb
others in class”.
19 respondents said; “students with social emotional behaviors make
inappropriate noises in class”
16 teachers said; “students with social emotional behaviors do not
finish assignments in time”
14 teachers said:
“students with social emotional behaviors have difficult in learning”
14 teachers said; “students with social emotional behaviors have
disunity and exclude themselves from peers”.
From the findings, it was observed that, most of secondary school
teachers had an idea of social emotional behaviors which happened most
frequently in schools. To sum up, it was noted that 82 percent of
teachers had the feeling that the majority of students with social
emotional behaviors disturbed others in class.
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
This chapter covers the discussion of the research findings on the
relationship between social emotional behavior and school academic
performance among secondary school students.
5.1 Discussion by Objectives of the Study
The major aim of this study was to find out Teachers’ perception of
the Relationship Between Social Emotional Behaviors and the School
Academic Performance Among Secondary School Students. For this case,
it is important therefore to review the specific objectives of the
study which guided the research so as to come up with the specific
findings.
5.1.1 Teachers’ Perception of Indicators and Characteristics of Social
Emotional Behaviors
The major aim of this section was to explore teachers’ perceived
relationship between social emotional behaviors and school academic
performance among secondary school students in. The question was: What
are the indicators and characteristics of students with social
emotional behaviors”? The researcher’s prediction was that, teachers
in Korogwe district would report various indicators and
characteristics of social emotional behaviors. Moreover, the study
agreed with the predicted results where it was revealed that, the
majority of teachers seemed to have adequate understanding of
indicators and characteristics of social emotional behavior among
secondary school students. From the results, it is evident that most
of the teachers were able to explain how students with social
emotional behavior can be distinguished from stable peers. Very few
teachers seemed to have poor perception of the characteristics and
indicators of social emotional behavior.
The perception of the majority of secondary school teachers correspond
well with what is in the literature where students with social
emotional behaviors were said to get out of their seats more often,
yelled, cursed others, disturb peers, hit or fight quite often, ignore
the teachers, regularly complain, and argue excessively. They steal,
lie, destroy property, do not comply with school regulations, have
temper tantrums, and were excluded from peercontrolled activities.
They often did not respond to teacher directives, and did not complete
assignments in time (Heward, 2006). This is also in line with what
Meyer et al., (1997) pointed out when they said, social emotional
behavior is a variety of excessive, chronic, deviant behaviors ranging
from impulsive and aggressive which violated the observers
expectations of appropriateness and which the perceiver wished to see
stopped. This study also revealed that few secondary school teachers
had not observed social emotional behaviors among students. Being a
minority, it is not clear if they were right or are just not observant
enough.
From the findings, it was revealed that the views of responding
teachers and those from the literature correlate. The study concluded
that, since the majority of teachers were able to point out different
characteristics and indicators of students with social emotional
behaviors, their understanding of social emotional behaviors was high.
These teachers reported that, actions exhibited by these students
marked the differences between them and those who are without SEB.
5.1.2 Teachers’ Perceived Prevalence of Social Emotional Behaviors
The major aim of this section was to explore teachers’ perception of
the prevalent of given social emotional behaviors among secondary
schools students. It intended to assess their ability to identify the
individuals with a specific disability in a given population at a
given time. The leading question was: “What are the most prevalent
social emotional behaviors among secondary school students”? The
researcher’s prediction was that, there would be significant
differentiation and consistency among given SEB. In this study,
teachers indeed reported that, the number of male students exhibiting
SEB was higher than that of females.
This is consistent with what is in the literature where it has been
revealed by Glassberg, et al., (1998) that, males were significantly
more likely than females to fall within each major disability group.
Indeed most theoretical literature argue that boys were more likely to
exhibit externalizing behaviors such as punching, hitting other
people, temper tantrums, swearing, disruptive acts, and other types of
disruptive behaviors. On the other hand, girls were more likely to
exhibit internalizing behaviors such as worrying, shyness, depression,
apathy, anxiety, social withdrawal and low selfesteem.
Moreover, in an interesting investigation, using “The investigation
using the Environmental Risk (ERisk) Longitudinal Twin Study”,
Trzersniewski, et al., (2006) found that, for boys, a reciprocal
causation model best explained the relationship between reading
achievement and antisocial behavior. For girls, however, it was found
that SEB led to reading problems, but reading problems did not lead to
SEB. To sum up, teachers are suggesting that, social emotional
behaviors happened mostly among boys than the way it is with girls.
These responses from teachers indicate that majority of boys seem to
have externalizing behaviors.
5.1.3 Teachers’ Perception of the Relationship Between Social
Emotional Behaviors And School Academic Performance
In this section the aim was to assess the relationship between social
emotional behaviors and school academic performance. It aimed at
proving whether it is true or not that children high on SEB have poor
academic performance as opposed to their mates who are low in SEB. The
research question posed was: What is the relationship between social
emotional behaviors and academic performance among secondary school
students? The prediction for this research question was that there was
a close relationship between social emotional behaviors and the school
academic performance among secondary school students.
From the findings, it was revealed that the majority of teachers
seemed to have a feeling that there was a relationship between social
emotional behavior and school academic performance among secondary
school students. These teachers were able to explain how social
emotional behavior relates to school academic performance through
vivid examples from their schools. Majority of them agreed that many
of the students with SEB had low academic performance as compared to
their age or class mates. On the other hand, very few teachers seemed
to lack or not to see things that way. The findings were in line to
what was found in the literature where it was reported that,
internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems were linked with
academic difficulties (Anord, 1997). For instance, Hinshaw (1992) also
reported that, inattention and hyperactivity are strong correlates of
academic achievement problems.
Most students with social emotional behaviors performed at one or more
years below grade level academically (Cullinan, 2002). Many of these
students with SEB exhibited significant deficiencies in reading
(Coleman and Vaughn, 2000; Pickles, et al., 1996) and in mathematics
achievement (Greenbaum et. al., 1996). In additional to the challenges
to learning caused by behavioral excesses and deficits, many students
with social emotional behaviors also have learning disabilities and/or
language delays, which compound their difficulties in mastering
academic skills and contents (Glassberg et al., 1999 ; Kiser et al.,
2000).
Furthermore, Ruhl and Berlinghoff (1992) suggested that, between 33%
and 81% of children with social emotional behavior problems had
academic difficulties. Similarly, the study by Arnold (1997) and
Hinshaw (1992) affirm that there is robust evidence that social
emotional behaviors are related with academic difficulties. In fact,
most research suggests that, students with social emotional behaviors
perform at approximately one standard deviation below the mean, or
close to one year behind their expected achievement level (Glassberg
et al., 1999).
In effect, many students with social emotional behaviors also have
learning disabilities and/or language delays, which compound their
difficulties in mastering academic skills and contents. However,
Hinshaw (1992) asserts that, although causality has not been
determined, the evidence suggests a reciprocal relationship between
SEB and school academic performance. In some cases, underachievement
has been shown to foster inappropriate behaviors (Trout et al., 2003)
while in others, SEB has been shown to negatively influence academic
performance (Wehby et al., 2003).
Most reviews suggest that poor academic performance is one of the
general characteristics of students with social emotional behavior
(Kneedler, 1984). Anxiety disorders are associated with lower academic
achievement (Stein & Kean, 2000; Woodward & Fergusson, 2001; Kessler,
2003). Tolan et al., (2001) revealed that, teachers and schools can
have tremendous influence on such students. Problems can get less
because of teachers’ actions and they can get worse for the same
reason. In other words, what educators do makes a difference.
To conclude, it was evident that both the teachers and the literature
reviews suggest that there was a very close relationship between
social emotional behaviors and school academic performance among
students. There seem to be consistent evidence that, in most cases, a
student with socially acceptable behaviors is likely to have better
performance than the one with SEB. Teachers were of the views that, in
order for the students with social emotional behaviors to perform well
in academic work, there has to be an establishment for early
identification and intervention of students with SEB as well as close
follow upon their day to day school progress.
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter covers the summary of the findings, conclusions, and
recommendations. The recommendations have two subsections, namely
recommendations for policy work, and recommendations for further
research.
6.1 Summary of the Study
In regard to objective one, the findings showed that, many secondary
school teachers had adequate perception of SEB. The majority of them
were able to identify indicators and characteristics of students with
social emotional behaviors including yelling, disturbing peers,
ignoring the teacher, arguing excessively, not complying with school
instructions, not responding to teacher’s corrections, isolation from
peers, bullying, difficultness in learning, short attention span,
making inappropriate noises in class, quarrelling, being uncooperative
with teachers, not finishing assignments in time, hyper activeness,
and so forth. On the other hand, very few teachers need some training
for awareness so that they can be able to identify learners with SEB
and devise a method of teaching them.
Regarding the second objective, the findings showed that, it was
evident that majority of the secondary school teachers had adequate
grasp of the prevalent SEB for they were able to indicate the
percentage of students with SEB. These teachers reported that male
students were more likely to display SEB than female students because
of the externalizing behaviors they exhibited such as punching,
hitting others, temper tantrums, swearing, disruptive acts, and
others. Such behaviors hindered them from making friends with other
peers; as a result, the academic performance of these students was
hampered.
Regarding objective three, the findings showed that, the majority of
secondary school teachers saw a correlation between the two variables
for they were able to show that there was a close relationship between
social emotional behaviors and school academic performance among the
students. They described the contributions of internalizing and
externalizing behaviors as being among the factors leading to
underachievement among students with SEB. The study revealed that
anxiety and aggression posed problems for students and challenges for
educators.
Teachers reported that, students with internalizing behaviors often
did not pay attention to them and avoided challenging them. Both
internalizing and externalizing behaviors were linked with academic
difficulties. To sum up, from teachers’ perspective, behaviors such as
getting out of seats, yelling, talking aloud, disturbing peers,
hitting or fighting, ignoring the teacher, not complying with
directions, displaying temper tantrums, not responding to teacher
corrections and not completing assignments on time were considered
contributing factors that affected learners’ academic performance.
Many teachers reported that the majority of students whose academic
performance was low were those exhibiting these social emotional
behaviors.
6.2 Conclusions of the Study
The objective of this study was to find out teachers’ perception of
the relationship between social emotional behaviors and school
academic performance among secondary school students by examining
their understanding of the indicators and characteristics of SEB.
Teachers’ perceived prevalence of SEB was also discussed. From the
study, it was revealed that low academic achievement is associated
with increasing externalizing behaviors and that high social
selfesteem is related with higher academic performance. Thus, this
finding was useful in supporting the argument for introducing
interventions in school children to counter behavioral problems,
thereby improving academic performance.
Despite the strong relationship between SEB and school academic
performance, there remains a lack of research on effective academic
instruction for students with SEB. With reading, for instance, all
students, including those with SEB, can benefit from systematic and
explicit instruction in phonological awareness, word identification,
fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Recognizing that deficits in
language may be negatively influencing the behavior and academic life
of students with SEB is vital to creating effective instructional
programs. Further, these programs need to be highly engaging if they
are to be successful. Given the poor outcomes for this population, it
is urgent that literacy instruction become an integral part of their
intervention.
Social emotional behaviors seem to take large part among students all
over the world and contributes to a large extent to insufficient
academic performance in schools. It has some negative effects in their
school life for it leads to aggression, bullying, isolation,
hyperactivity, lack of attention and such behaviors. The majority of
students perform poorly in academic matters due to this challenging
behavior. For this reason, all Secondary school teachers need to be
trained on how to identify students with social emotional behaviors by
observing their characteristics and displayed in school environment so
as to come up with a strategy of minimizing the problem hence, raise
their academic performance.
6.3 Recommendations Based on Findings
The study found that social emotional behavior is a major problem that
affects academic performance of the majority of secondary school
students. Regarding the findings of this research, the following
recommendations considered to be vital.
6.3.1 Recommendations for Practice
From the research findings, the study proposes the following
recommendations for practice: First, the Ministry of Education,
Science and Technology via Curriculum developers should set clear
strategies on how to meet the educational needs of students with
social emotional behaviors. Second, all studentteachers should be
trained on how to identify, teach and handle students with SEB aiming
at improving their academic performance. Third, the government should
prepare some workshops, refresher courses, and seminars for all
inservice teachers aiming at equipping them with the knowledge on how
to identify, and deal with students exhibiting social emotional
behaviors. On the other hand, the Ministry of education, Science and
Technology should see to it that all secondary schools in the country
introduce guidance and counseling sessions to cater for Psychological
and Academic needs of all students with social emotional behaviors.
6.3.3 Recommendations for Further Research
The following recommendations for further research are proposed: The
study focused on the relationship between social emotional behavior
and academic performance among secondary school students. Furthermore,
the study should specifically focus on the effective academic
instruction for students with SEB. Nonetheless, the study was carried
out using a relatively small sample in Korogwe Town. A more diverse
sample across Tanzania could cater for specific features of schooling,
educational system, and traditions of instruction and the associations
between adolescents’ social emotional styles and academic achievement
may account for differences in other cultural environments.
On the other hand, since SEB leads to academic underachievement, it is
also possible that underachievement may lead to SEB. All these call
for more research works. The study was conducted in only one area,
Korogwe district. Since the study covered a few students, the same
study can be conducted to cover more districts and regions so as to
allow more generalization for findings.
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APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF SOCIAL EMOTIONAL
BEHAVIORS.
Dear respondent, My name is Adamson Rainas, a student at the Open
University of Tanzania pursuing a degree in “Master of Education in
Administration, Planning and Policy Studies”. I am conducting a
research on, Teachers’ Perception of the Relationship Between Social
Emotional Behaviors and School Academic Performance Among Secondary
School Students in Korogwe district, Tanzania as part of my academic
program. I request you to respond to questions provided as instructed.
High confidentiality will be observed to all information you provide
for the sake of this study. Thank you.
1.
Gender: a: Male [ ] b: Female [ ]
2.
Age: a. 2529 [ ] b. 3039 [ ] c. 4049 [ ] d. 5059 [ ]
3.
Level of education: a. Diploma [ ] b. Bachelor’s degree and above
[ ]
Please answer all questions. Beside each item below, indicate the
degree of your assessment by putting a tick (√) appropriately.
Serial No.
Students with social emotional behavior do the following
Level of perception
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
1
Make inappropriate noises in class.
2
Have temper tantrums
3
Have poor attention span
4
Are quarrelsome and often fight
5
Are restless and hyperactive and get out seats
6
Cannot finish assignments in time
7
Display childish and immature behavior
8
Blame others for their mistakes
9
Have difficult in learning
10
Are uncooperative with teachers
11
Are easily frustrated in difficult situations
12
Exclude themselves from peer controlled activities
13
Put excessive demands for teacher’s attention
14
Destroy public properties
15
Steal often
16
Tell lies often
Source: Marshall, K. and Kunt, N.(2002): Exceptional Children and
Youth: An Introduction to Special
Education.
APPENDIX 2: TEACHERS’ PERCEIVED PREVALENCE OF SOCIAL
EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORS
Dear respondent, My name is Adamson Rainas, a student at the Open
University of Tanzania pursuing a degree in “Master of Education in
Administration, Planning and Policy Studies”. I am conducting a
research on, Teachers’ Perception of the Relationship Between Social
Emotional Behaviors and School Academic Performance Among Secondary
School Students in Korogwe district, Tanzania as part of my academic
program. I request you to respond to questions provided as instructed.
High confidentiality will be observed to all information you provide
for the sake of this study. Thank you.
1.
Gender: a: Male [ ] b: Female [ ]
2.
Age: a. 2529 [ ] b. 3039 [ ] c. 4049 [ ] d. 5059 [ ]
3.
Level of education: a. Diploma [ ] b. Bachelor’s degree and above[
]
Please answer all questions. Beside each item below, indicate the
degree of your assessment by putting a tick (√) appropriately.
S/ N
How do boys and girls compare on the following Social Emotional
Behaviors?
Nature of prevalence by gender
Happens equally to boys & girls
Happens mostly to boys
Happens mostly to girls
Doesn’t happen at all
Total
1
Make inappropriate noises in class.
2
Have temper tantrums
3
Have poor attention span
4
Are quarrelsome and often fight
5
Are restless, hyperactive and get out of their seats
6
Cannot finish assignment in time
7
Display childish and immature behaviors
8
Blame others for their mistakes
9
Have difficult in learning
10
Are uncooperative with teachers
11
Are easily frustrated in difficult situations
12
Exclude themselves from peer controlled activities
13
Put excessive demands for teacher’s attention
14
Destroy public properties
15
Steal often
16
Tell lies often
Source: Marshall, K. and Kunt, N.(2002): Exceptional Children and
Youth: An Introduction to Special
Education
APPENDIX 3: TEACHERS’ RATING OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
SOCIAL EMOTIONAL BEHAVIORS AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE
Dear respondent, My name is Adamson Rainas, a student at the Open
University of Tanzania pursuing a degree in “Master of Education in
Administration, Planning and Policy Studies”. I am conducting a
research on, Teachers’ Perception of the Relationship Between Social
Emotional Behaviors and School Academic Performance Among Secondary
School Students in Korogwe district, Tanzania as part of my academic
program. I request you to respond to questions provided as instructed.
High confidentiality will be observed to all information you provide
for the sake of this study. Thank you.
1.
Gender: a: Male [ ] b: Female [ ]
2.
Age: a. 2529 [ ] b. 3039 [ ] c. 4049 [ ] d. 5059 [ ]
3.
Level of education: a. Diploma [ ] b. Bachelor’s degree and above[
]
Please answer all questions. Beside each item below, indicate the
degree of your assessment by putting a tick (√) appropriately.
S/No.
Students with social emotional behavior do the following:
Teachers rating
Strongly agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly disagree
Total
1
Making inappropriate noises in class.
2
Having temper tantrums
3
Exhibiting poor attention span
4
Quarrelsome and regular fights
5
Restlessness and hyperactivity
6
Not finishing assignments in time
7
Displaying childish and immature behavior
8
To blame others for their mistakes
9
Difficult in learning
10
Lack of cooperation with teachers
11
Being easily frustrated in difficult situations
12
Self exclusion from peer controlled activities
13
Putting excessive demands for teacher’s attention
14
Destroying public properties
15
To Steal often
16
Telling lies often.
Source: Marshall, K. and Kunt, N.(2002): Exceptional Children and
Youth: An Introduction to Special
Education.
APPENDIX 4: TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF SOCIAL EMOTIONAL
BEHAVIORS THAT OFTEN HAPPEN IN KOROGWE
DISTRICT
Dear respondent, My name is Adamson Rainas, a student at the Open
University of Tanzania pursuing a degree in “Master of Education in
Administration, Planning and Policy Studies”. I am conducting a
research on, Teachers’ Perception of the Relationship Between Social
Emotional Behaviors and School Academic Performance Among Secondary
School Students in Korogwe district, Tanzania as part of my academic
program. I request you to respond to questions provided as instructed.
High confidentiality will be observed to all information you provide
for the sake of this study. Thank you.
1.
Gender: a: Male [ ] b: Female [ ]
2.
Age: a. 2529 [ ] b. 3039 [ ] c. 4049 [ ] d. 5059 [ ]
3.
Level of education: a. Diploma [ ] b. Bachelor’s degree and above
[ ]
Q. Mention five social emotional behaviors that happen most in your
school.
i.
.……………………………………………………………………
ii.
……………………………………………………………………
iii.
……………………………………………………………………
iv.
……………………………………………………………………
v.
……………………………………………………………

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