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Learning Disabilities: Understanding Patterns of Strengths

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Learning Disabilities: Understanding Patterns of Strengths and
Weaknesses
Participant’s Handout
NOTE: Please complete the PreTest for the LD module before
continuing.
Learning Disabilities
“Given what we now know about LD, it is irresponsible to continue
current policies that dictate inadequate early identification
practices.”
From: Rethinking Special Education for a New Century, Chapter 12:
Rethinking Learning Disabilities. G. Reid Lyon, Jack M. Fletcher,
Sally E. Shaywitz, Bennet A. Shaywitz,
Joseph K. Torgesen, Frank B. Wood, Ann Schulte, & Richard Olson
What current policies were they criticizing?


What is a specific learning
disability?


General Principles
Professionals must know:
*
State and federal laws and regulations
*
Definitions
*
Exclusionary factors
*
Criteria for identification
*
Appropriate evaluation tools & procedures
*
Research on learning disabilities
*
Effective instructional practices
Current definition of Specific Learning Disability (SLD): (IDEA,
2004,Section 300.8(c ) (10)





Exclusionary Factors (IDEA, 2004)
Excludes learning problems that are primarily the result of:
*
visual, hearing, or motor disabilities
*
mental retardation
*
emotional disturbance
*
environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
Identification of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD)
IDEA, 2004: Section 300.307
*
Must not require the use of a severe discrepancy between
intellectual ability and achievement
*
Must permit the use of a process based on the child’s response to
scientific, researchbased intervention
*
May permit the use of alternative researchbased procedures
Criteria for Determining SLD:
Factor 1: Does not achieve adequately for the child’s age or meet
Stateapproved gradelevel standards in one or more of the following
areas when provided with learning experiences and instruction
appropriate for the child’s age or Stateapproved gradelevel
standards:
What are the 8 areas to consider?




Requirement to Document Appropriate Instruction & Progress Monitoring
*
Data that demonstrates child was provided appropriate instruction
within general education settings AND
*
Databased documentation of repeated assessments of achievement at
reasonable intervals (formal evaluation of progress).
Not SLD if achievement problem is due to lack of appropriate
instruction in reading or math.
Criteria for Determining SLD (continued)
Factor 2:
Child’s progress in 1 (or more) of the 8 areas is not sufficient to
meet age or gradelevel standards when his or her response to
scientific, researchbased intervention is part of determination
process.
OR
Child exhibits a pattern of strengths and weaknesses in performance,
achievement, or both relative to age, gradelevel standards, or
intellectual development that is determined by the group to be
relevant to the identification of SLD.
Factor 3: Are the findings in Factors 1 and 2 primarily a result of:
*
Visual, hearing, or motor disability
*
Mental retardation
*
Emotional disturbance
*
Cultural factors
*
Environmental or economic disadvantage
*
Limited English proficiency
Summary: Three factors are needed:
1.
Underachievement ….
2.
Insufficient progress OR pattern of strengths and weaknesses….
3.
Not primarily the result of……
*
Exclusionary factors
*
Lack of appropriate instruction
*
Limited English proficiency
Appropriate Tools and Procedures
*
Directed to use a variety of assessment tools and strategies
*
Cannot rely on a single procedure as sole criterion
*
Professional discretion
*
Appropriate technical qualities
*
Knowledge of what the test does and does not measure
Documentation Required for Eligibility Determination
*
Statement that the child has a specific learning disability
*
Basis for making the determination
*
Relevant behavior and relationship to academic functioning
*
Educationally relevant medical findings (if any)
*
Whether the child does not achieve adequately for age or meet
grade level standards
*
Does not make sufficient progress OR exhibits a pattern of
strengths and weaknesses
*
Determination regarding exclusionary factors
Status of IQ/Achievement Discrepancy Procedure for LD Eligibility
*
May not be the sole determinant of SLD identification
*
May be included in the determination process
*
May not use simple difference method (IQACH)
*
Must use a standard regression procedure
*
Usually included in conormed tests offering IQ/Achievement
discrepancy calculations
*
Correction for regression is required when not built into
tests used
Regression
The higher the correlation between IQ/ACH, the smaller the effect of
regression.
The lower the correlation between IQ/ACH, the greater the effect of
regression.
Occurs whenever predictor (IQ) is not perfectly correlated to area
predicted (ACH).
References to Consult
The Statute www.nichcy.org/reauth/PL108446.pdf
http://idea.ed.gov
Final Part B Regulations www.nichcy.org/reauth/IDEA2004regulations.pdf
http://idea.ed.gov
Texas http://framework.esc18.net
(Commissioner’s Rules www.tea.state.tx.us/special.ed
& Guidance)
Cognitive Abilities
*
Important component in determining SLD
*
Helpful when determining a pattern of strengths and weaknesses
*
Provides information about intraindividual differences
*
Diagnostic value
*
Assists in developing appropriate interventions
CHC Theory Provides a Common Taxonomy
*
Multiplefactor view of intelligence (Broad and narrow abilities)
*
Empiricallybased
*
Raymond Cattell, John Horn, and John Carroll CHC theory
Crystallized Intelligence (Gc):

Fluid Reasoning (Gf):
Longterm Retrieval (Glr):
ShortTerm Memory (Gsm):
Visual Processing (Gv):
Auditory Processing (Ga):
Processing Speed (Gs):
KABCII measures Gc, Gf, Glr, Gsm, and Gv
5 Scales: Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Sequential, Learning, Visual
Stanford Binet 5 measures Gc, Gf, Gsm, Gv (& Quantitative Reasoning)
5 Scales: Knowledge, Working Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Quantitative
Reasoning, Visual Processing
WISCIV measures Gc, Gf/Gv, Gsm, Gs
4 Indexes: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working
Memory, Processing Speed
WJ III measures Gc, Gf, Glr, Gsm, Gv, Ga, Gs
7 Factors: ComprehensionKnowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Longterm
Retrieval, VisualSpatial Thinking, Auditory Processing, Short
term Memory, Processing Speed
Know What Your Test Does and Does Not Measure
Test
Gc
Gf
Glr
Gv
Ga
Gsm
Ga
KABCII
SB5
WISCIV
WJ III
Place a check in the column for each ability that the test measures.
Abilities Defined
Gc
Verbal ability
Store of acquired knowledge, cultural and linguistic background
Gf
Fluid Reasoning
Mental flexibility, deductive and inductive problemsolving abilities
Glr
LongTerm Retrieval
Process of storing and retrieving information, associative memory
Gsm
ShortTerm Memory
Immediate memory, working memory and memory span, limited capacity
system
Gv
Visual Processing
Perception and manipulation of visual shapes or forms, visualspatial
thinking
Ga
Auditory Processing
Perception and processing of auditory input, phonological awareness
and processing
Gs
Processing Speed
Automaticity, fluency, cognitive speed
Relationship to Academics
Gc
Verbal ability
Strong and consistent across all academics and ages
Gf
Fluid Reasoning
Significant across all academics, especially with higher level skills
Glr
LongTerm Retrieval
Significant and moderate across all academics, especially in primary
grades
Gsm
ShortTerm Memory
Significant across all academics,
Working memory especially relevant to higher level skills
Gv
Visual Processing
No significant relationship as measured in IQ tests currently except
with higher level math.
Ga
Auditory Processing
Significant relationship across all academics during early grades
Gs
Processing Speed
Significant to all academics especially in early to midgrades
Oral Language
Which cognitive abilities are most closely related to oral language?


Importance of Oral Language
*
Lack of oral language and literacy exposure and interaction from
birthpreschool years can result in deficits in phonemic awareness
and word reading.
*
Impaired knowledge of sounds, vocabulary concepts, and print
concepts result from lack of opportunity to listen and interact
with language in multiple contexts.
*
Language is the foundation for learning.
Mind the Language Gap
It is much more difficult to “close the gap” in broad knowledge and
verbal skills than it is in word reading skills.
Tests of reading comprehension at third grade and up are increasingly
sensitive to individual differences in verbal knowledge and reasoning.
Importance of Phonemic Awareness
A deficit in phonemic awareness is the major factor impeding
development of the alphabetic principle.
What is the alphabetic principle?

A deficit in phonemic awareness significantly impacts the ability to
develop accurate and fluent word reading capabilities.
Why would limited PA impact accurate and fluent word reading?

A deficit in phonemic awareness can lead to compromised comprehension.
How can a deficit in PA lead to compromised comprehension?

In Kindergarten:
1. Assess phonemic awareness
2. Assess ability to name letters and numbers
3. Assess ability to provide letter sounds
These are strong predictors of difficulties learning to read.
Developmental Sequence
*
Rhyming: most preschoolers and kindergartners are able to rhyme
words
*
Count Syllables: most first graders can count syllables, blend
syllables, delete part of a compound word
*
Perform all types of phonemic activities: most second graders
Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN)
Ability to rapidly retrieve and label visual symbols
A.) Phonological connection: RAN tasks correlate highly with other
phonological skills; shows a unique causal relationship with early
literacy. (Torgesen and Burgess,1998)
B.) Orthographic connection: RAN related to visual and speed
components needed for reading; disruption in automatic process of
quick word recognition (Bowers and Wolf, 1993).
Early Warning Signs: Preschool
*
Late talking, compared to other children.
*
Pronunciation problems.
*
Slow vocabulary growth, often unable to find the right word.
*
Difficulty rhyming words.
*
Trouble learning numbers, the alphabet, days of the week.
*
Extremely restless and easily distracted.
*
Trouble interacting with peers.
*
Poor ability to follow directions or routines.
Reading
“Children who get off to a poor start in reading rarely catch up. We
waitthey fail. But it does not have to be this way.”
From:
Rethinking Special Education for a New Century, Chapter 12: Rethinking
Learning Disabilities
G. Reid Lyon, Jack M. Fletcher, Sally E. Shaywitz, Bennet A. Shaywitz,
Joseph K. Torgesen, Frank B. Wood, Ann Schulte, & Richard Olson
Early Identification/Intervention
“Exclusion From the Basic Right to Learn”
*
Since underlying causes of early reading difficulty are similar
for children regardless of placement/services, early intervention
should occur through regular education.
*
Special education professionals should become specialists in
prevention.
*
Without early intervention, the poor reader does not catch up (CT.
study)
Early Warning Signs: K4
*
Slow learning connection between letters and sounds
*
Confuses basic words (was/saw, then/them ).
*
Makes consistent reading and spelling errors including letter
reversals (b/d), inversions (m/w), transpositions (felt/left), and
substitutions (house/home)
*
Transposes number sequences (14 for 41) and confuses arithmetic
signs (+, , x, /, )
*
Slow recall of facts
*
Slow to learn new skills, relies heavily on memorization
*
Impulsiveness, lack of planning
*
Unstable pencil grip
*
Trouble learning about time
*
Poor coordination, unaware of physical surroundings, prone to
accidents
“We estimate that the number of children who are typically identified
as poor readers and served through either special education or
compensatory education programs could be reduced by up to 70 percent
through early identification and intervention programs.”
From: Rethinking Special Education for a New Century, Chapter 12:
Rethinking Learning Disabilities. G. Reid Lyon etal.
What do you think of this quote? Agree? Disagree? Why?


Predictors of Reading
1. Phonemic awareness
2. Speed & accuracy of reading single words
3. Vocabulary
4. Background knowledge
5. Knowledge of semantics and syntax
6. Knowledge of writing conventions
7. Verbal reasoning ability
8. Ability to recall and remember verbal information
Alphabetic Principle
*
Good readers have figured out that letters and letter patterns
represent segmented units of sounds (phonemes).
*
Poor readers have difficulty making this connection.
Remember: A deficit in phonemic awareness is the primary culprit.
Hereditary Factors (Shaywitz, 2001, Overcoming Dyslexia
1. There is a genetic cause for some types of reading disability
2. Deficits in phonemic awareness are the primary hereditary factor
3. Family history is a key indicator of risk
Phonology versus Orthography
*
Phonology: the sounds of a language
*
Orthography: the marks of a writing system, including the spelling
patterns of a language
Reading and spelling nonwords that adhere to English spelling rules
requires both abilities.
Characteristics of Phonological Reading Disabilities
Early Speech/Language Difficulties
*
Articulation errors
*
Mispronunciations of multisyllabic words
Decoding/Encoding
*
Trouble remembering soundsymbol relationships
*
Confusion with similarsounding sounds
*
Difficulty sequencing sounds in a word
*
Overreliance on wholeword, context, or visual clues
*
Trouble pronouncing phonically regular nonsense words
*
Difficulty using phonological analysis (omits or adds sounds or
letters)
*
Slow reading rate
Characteristics of Orthographic Reading Disabilities
Symbols/Decoding/Encoding/Calculating
*
Difficulty learning how to form symbols
*
Confusion of symbols similar in appearance (e.g., b for d, n for
u)
*
Trouble with near and farpoint copying tasks
*
Tendency to reverse or transpose letters or numbers
*
Trouble remembering how words look
*
Trouble reading exception or irregular words
*
Trouble with accurate and rapid word recognition; slow reading
speed
*
Tendency to use different spellings for the same word
*
Tendency to omit word endings
*
Overreliance on phonological rather than visual features
*
Trouble learning and retaining basic math facts
*
Difficulty counting in a sequence (e.g., counting by 2)
*
Trouble with multistep math problems
Why is it important for children to acquire good phonemic decoding
skills
(phonics) early in reading development?

Reasons for Difficulties in Reading Comprehension
*
phonological deficits
*
word recognition/decoding deficits
*
vocabulary deficits & inadequate background knowledge
*
lack of familiarity with semantic and syntactic structures
*
lack of knowledge about different writing conventions
*
lack of verbal reasoning ability
*
limited ability to remember and/or recall verbal information
Determining the Presence of a Reading Disability
*
Oral Language to Reading
*
Listening Comprehension to Reading Comprehension
*
Oral Vocabulary to Reading Vocabulary
*
Basic Reading Skills to Comprehension
*
Real Words to Nonsense Words
*
Reading Fluency to Fluency on other types of tasks (math, writing,
cognitive)
Reading Disability: Yes, No, Maybe?
*
Write down what you think.
*
Explain your thinking.
*
What other information do you need?
Reading Composite
93
Basic Reading Skills
74
Reading Comprehension
92
Real Words
88
Nonsense Words
70
Reading Fluency
89
Reading Vocabulary
94
Oral Language
115
Listening Comprehension
110
Oral Vocabulary
112

Written Language
Predictors of Those at Risk for Written Language Disabilities:
*
Early grades: weakness in speech sound awareness
*
Later grades: difficulty understanding spelling rules, word
structures, and letter patterns
*
Orthographic memory problems: visual memory difficulty with words
and letters only
Developmental Stages of Spelling
1. Prephonetic: Strings letters (and sometimes numbers) together
randomly
2. Semiphonetic: Represents sounds with letters, but mostly
consonants and
long vowels are represented.
3. Phonetic: Spells words the way they sound.
4. Transitional: Incorporates common spelling patterns.
5. Correct spelling: Uses knowledge of phonology, orthography,
morphology,
and semantics in spelling.
Review Slide: Spelling Errors
What’s this person’s developmental stage of
spelling?
Handwriting
Automaticity of letter retrieval and formation is key.
*
predicts quality of composition (Berninger, et al)
*
frees up cognitive energy for higherlevel tasks (e.g.
organization, creative development, etc.)
Difficulties may be related to a combination of factors (finemotor
problems, difficulty with orthographic memory, opportunity for
instruction, practice, and reinforcement of skills)
Basic Writing Skills
Teach handwriting and spelling as tools for communicating ideas.
*
Begin writing exercise with a warmup in handwriting or spelling.
*
Move to planning, writing, reviewing, and revising text.
*
Better progress when lowlevel skills are integrated into
higherlevel activities.
Written Expression
Planning what to write is difficult for beginning and disabled
writers.
Provide guided assistance
*
composition prompts (story starters)
*
teacher queries (what else can you think of?)
*
graphic organizers
*
explicit modeling (teacher thinks aloud)
Teach selfregulation strategies
*
What I think, I can say, what I say, I can write
*
Plan, Write, Review, Revise (PWRR)
Determining the Presence of a Writing Disability
*
Writing speed to ideation
*
Ideation to oral language abilities
*
Spelling on expressive writing tasks to tests of spelling.
*
Writing fluency to other fluency measures
Writing Disability: Yes, No, Maybe? Note: 6th grade student
*
Write down what you think.
*
Explain your thinking.
*
What other information do you need?
Writing Composite
61
Basic Writing Skills
63
Written Expression
71
Spelling real words
60
Spelling nonsense words
67
Writing Fluency
68
Oral Language
61
Listening Comprehension
63
Oral Vocabulary
70

Mathematics
Common Characteristics of Individuals with Math Disabilities
*
Trouble remembering basic facts
*
Trouble storing &/or retrieving basic facts
*
Trouble inhibiting facts
*
Use of immature problemsolving procedures
*
Trouble sequencing steps in complex problems
Qualitative Considerations for Math
Does the individual demonstrate visual confusion?
*
visualmotor coordination
*
spatial organization of numbers on the page
Distinguish between errors resulting from visual confusion and errors
resulting from math difficulty.
What is the individual’s processing speed?
*
performance on math fluency task
*
performance on a cognitive speed task
Qualitative Analysis
Calculation
*
Errors typically rule governed (misunderstands, misapplies, or
makes up own rule)
*
Observe manner used to solve problems. Were inefficient processes
used? Were they developmentally appropriate?
Math Fluency/Timed Fact Tests
*
Errors: inattention to signs, lack of understanding of operation,
poor fact knowledge
*
Correct, few completed: lack of automaticity, slow processing
speed
Observe Behaviors & Strategies Employed
A. Examinee comments, expressions, gestures
B. Uses finger counting
C. Know facts rapidly and automatically
D. Skips certain types of problems
E. Look at errors
1. Is the concept understood?
2. Are answers sensible?
3. Source of the confusion?
4. Pattern to mistakes?
5. Trouble with basic facts?
Relationship to Reading
*
Over 50% of math disabled also have reading disabilities
*
Common memory problem (fact retrieval & lettersound/word
retrieval)
What cognitive ability may affect retrieval of facts and
lettersounds?

Possible Subtypes of Math Disability (Geary, 2000)
*
Procedural disorder characterized by:
*
using developmentally immature procedures
*
developmental delay in understanding the concepts underlying
the procedures
*
frequent errors in the execution of the procedures
*
difficulty sequencing the multiple steps in complex procedures
*
Semantic disorder characterized by:
*
limited ability to retrieve math facts
*
facts retrieved are frequently wrong
*
error responses associated with the numbers
*
solution time for correct solutions is not systematic
*
Visuospatial disorder characterized by:
*
difficulty with spatial representation of numbers
*
place value errors
*
difficulties in area of math that depend on spatial, e.g.,
geometry
Math Disability: Yes, No, Maybe? Note: 7th grade student
*
Write down what you think.
*
Explain your thinking.
*
What other information do you need?
Math Composite
78
Basic Math Skills
68
Math Reasoning
81
Math Fluency
58
Oral Language
94
Listening Comprehension
96
Oral Expression
93

NOTE: Please complete the PostTest for the LD module. Compare your
results from the Pre and PostTests.
© Statewide Leadership: Evaluation 15 151515

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